Agriculture Form One Notes (Q&A)
1. a). What is Agriculture?
The art and Science of crop and livestock production.
b). State the roles played by agriculture in national development
– Food supply
– Source of raw materials for industries
– Employment opportunities
– Foreign exchange earnings
– Source of capital for development
– Market for industrial goods.
c). State the forms of employment in Agriculture
i. Primary employment
– Working on farms
ii. Secondary employment
– In agriculture – based industries
iii. Tertiary employment
– In distribution of farm produce.
d). i) Briefly outline the problems that have hindered agricultural development
– Lack of capital for investment
– Pests and diseases of crops and livestock
– Unpredictable climatic conditions
– Fluctuation of market prices
– Inadequate or poor storage structure leading to heavy lose
– Inadequate technical know-how
– Population pressure hence over-use of land
– Poor communication
– Bulky commodity prices
ii) Suggest ways in which these problems can be alleviated
– Proper food preservation
– Improved communication network
– Industries located near bulky products
– Extension services/ advice
– Provide good seeds
– Credit facilities
– Pest and disease control
– Proper storage facilities
– Government price control.
2. a) i) What are the characteristics of shifting cultivation?
– Limited capital for investment
– Use of rudimentary tools and equipment
– Small land usually cultivated
– Slash and burn technique of clearing
– Crops not properly managed.
ii) State the problems associated with shifting cultivation.
– A wasteful method of farming
– Slow rate of regeneration of vegetation allowing soil erosion to take place
– No incentive to develop land
– No permanent structures are put up hence a lot of time wasted in moving or travelling to the homestead
– A lot of time wasted in moving from one place to another.
b) What is pastoralism?
– A major system of keeping livestock and moving with them from place of search of better pasture and water for livestock.
c) State the factors to consider in choosing a type of farm
– Type of enterprise itself
– Environmental factors
– Knowledge and skills of the farmer about the enterprise
– Available resources e.g labour and capital
– Cultural factors/ social factors
– Governmental policy
– Type of market he is producing for.
d) What is arable farming?
– Growing of crops only.
e) i) State the limitations of mixed farming
– The farmer will obtain sustainable income throughout the year
– The farmer will never experience total loss
– Animals contribute manure to crops while crops contribute/ provide crop residues fed to animals.
– Labour is utilized efficiently throughout the year
– Animals can be used to do work in the farm e.g oxen ploughing
ii) State the limitations of mixed farming
– Lack of enough land for more enterprises
– Lack of enough capital
– Lack of specialisation.
f) i) Give the types of farming practised by small scale farmers
– Arable farming
– Mixed farming
ii) Name the types of large scale farming
iii) Why does the Kenya government put a lot of emphasis on ranching?
– Because arable land is becoming smaller
– Ranching will lead to higher production of livestock to meet the high demand for meat
iv) State the common features of ranching as a farming system:
– Done in marginal areas with poor pasture
– System is extensive
– Extension services provided
– Improved pastures
– Selective livestock breeding
– High level livestock management.
g) i) State the advantages of plantation farming
– Provision of employment
– Revenue to government
– High outputs
– Foreign exchange earner
– Economies of large scale production
– Other activities done e.g processing.
ii) State the disadvantages of plantations.
– Overdependence on one enterprise
– High initial capital required.
iii) State the major characteristics of plantation farming.
– Most of the work is mechanised
– Requires skilled and qualified personnel
– Large tracts of land used
– Sometimes run by a company or the government or individuals
– The aim is to produce enough for local consumption and export market.
– Provides a lot of employment
– High output and quality of products
– Enjoys the economies of large scale production
– Scientific methods of farming used
– High investments of capital.
3. a) List the ecological factors affecting agriculture.
b) Mention the aspects of rainfall which are important in crop production
– Intensity of rainfall
– Amount of rainfall
form one topics and lesson notes 2
b) i) What is optimal temperature?
– Temperature at which plant growth is at its best.
ii) State the effects of temperature on crop production.
– Flowering and ripening
– Quality of the products.
c) State the effects of wind to crops.
– Physical damage
– Stress through evaporation / chilling
– Spread of pests, weeds, diseases
– Soil erosion
– Increase of water and mineral uptake by increasing transpiration.
1. a). i. Define the term soil.
– A collection of natural unconsolidated body covering the earth’s crust, where plants grow
ii). Name the ways in which soil is important to growing plants.
– Provides enchorage/ support for the plant
– Provides nutrients
– Provides moisture
b). i) State the factors which influence the soil forming process
– Climatic factors e.g rainfall
– Biotic factors e.g plants
– Type of parent materials
– Topography of land
– Time taken by the process.
ii). What biological agents influence the speed of the soil forming process?
– Movement of animals in large groups
– Man’s activities e.g cultivation, mining, road and railway construction.
– Micro-organisms ie. Decomposing plant and animal remains and adding to soil
– Earth worms, termites, moles etc mix up soil
– Roots of higher plants force their way through the rock cracks and further break them physically.
c) i) Define the term soil Profile
– The vertical arrangement of soil layers
ii) How does soil profile influence plant growth?
– Availability of plant nutrients
– Anchorage of plant
– Root penetration into soil
– How long soil moisture/ its availability
– Type of crop to be grown
d) i) List the constituents of a fertile soil
– Soil water
– Soil air
– Organic matter
– Mineral salts
– Living organisms.
ii) What role do micro-organisms play in soil?
– Decompose dead organic remains and convert them into humus, a source of plant nutrients
– Add nitrogen through nitrogen fixation.
e) i) What is soil structure?
– Aggregation of soil particles.
ii) State the farming practices that improve soil structure.
– Addition of organic matter
– Mixed cropping including cereals and legumes
– Minimum tillage
– Good crop rotation programme
– Cultivation at right moisture content of soil
iii) Why is a good soil structure desirable for growing crops.
– Improves drainage and water infiltration.
– Improves aeration
– Minimises buildup of carbon dioxide in the soil which becomes toxic to crops and micro-organisms.
– Facilitates better root penetration
– Creates favourable conditions for activity of micro-organisms
– Ensures adequate water retention for growing crops
– It makes tillage easier.
f) i) What is soil texture?
– Proportion of different sizes of soil particles.
ii) State the properties of soil that are influenced by its texture.
– Aeration/ porosity
– Water holding capacity/ capillarity
– Stickiness/ consistency
– Cation exchange capacity / PH/ availability of nutrients
iii) Give the types of soil based on texture.
– Sandy soils
– Clay soils
– Loam soils
2. a) State the advantages of using farm tools.
– They make work easier i.e. increase working efficiency
– Help to avoid drudgery
– Timeliness of operations is achieved
– Operations e.g. spraying to control pests and diseases are more exact hence effective
b) List the factors that determine a farmer’s choice of tools and equipment.
– Nature of work to be done
– The financial status
– Type of power used on the farm
– Condition of land where the tool will be used.
c) i) Why should tools and equipment be maintained well?
– To reduce cost of repair/ replacement
– To increase their durability/ last long
– To increase work efficiency
– Ensure safety of the user
– To remain in good working order.
ii) How should tools and equipment be maintained?
– Store in sheds and racks
– Clean and oil moving parts
– Regularly sharpen cutting edges
– Clean tools thoroughly after use
– Keep metal parts rust free
– Replace or repair broken/ wornout parts
– Ensure there are no loose parts
– Use tool for its intended purpose
– Buy good quality tools and equipment
– Always keep tools in good working condition
d) List the safety precautions necessary for tools and equipment
– Use the tool for its intended purpose
– Sharp points should always point away from user/ people
– Use protective clothing when working with tools
– Always replace/ repair broken parts/ keep handles smooth
– Handle delicate tools carefully/ store them safely.
e) How is friction reduces in moving parts?
– Apply oil
– Apply grease
– Generally lubricate moving parts
f) Name the categories of farm tools and equipment.
– Garden tools
– Workshop tools
– Livestock production tools
– Masonery and plumbing tools
Agriculture form one topics and lesson notes 3
1. a) State the importance of land preparation.
– Removal of weeds
– Breaking the soil into smaller pieces
– Mixing organic matter into soil/ bury crop aeration
– Improve drainage/ water holding capacity
– Destroy pests and disease causing organisms.
b) i) What is primary cultivation?
– All operations carried cut in opening up land for crop promotion.
ii) Which factors influence choice of tools for primary cultivation.
– Type of soil
– Availability of implements
– Depth of ploughing
– Type of tilth required
– Condition of the land
– Type of crop to be growth
– Topography of the area
– Financial ability of the farmer
– Time remaining before planting
c) i) What is secondary cultivation?
– Subsequent cultivation after primary cultivation to make seedbed fine and ready for planting.
ii) Give reasons for secondary cultivation?
– Removing weeds which have just germinated break soil into small clods
– Make the field level
– Mixing organic matter with soil
– Make land ready for planting.
d) i) Define minimum tillage
– To maintain soil structure
– To reduce soil erosion
– To reduce cost of seedbed preparation
– To conserve soil moisture
– To avoid damage to roots.
iii) State reasons for practising minimum tillage.
– Saves time
– Reduces cost of production
– Maintains soil structure/ controls soil erosion
– Maintains soil moisture
e) Name the factors that determine the number of tillage operations during seedbed preparation.
– Implement used/ type of machinery used
– The crop to be planted
– Soil moisture
– Initial condition of the land
– Soil type/ soil condition
– Skill of operator
– Liability of soil to erosion/ topography
– Capital available/ cost of operation
– Time available for other operations.
2. a) List the sources of water on the farm.
– Surface water
– Rain water/ rainfall
– Underground/ ground water
b) How is water conveyed from one point to another?
– Transporting in containers by vehicles/ animals/ human
– Use of channels
c) State how water is stored on a farm
– Use of water tank/ container
– Use of dam/ pond
d) i) Name the types of water pipes.
– Metal pipes
– Plastic pipes
– Hose pipe
ii) Mention the types of metal pipe
– Aluminium pipes
– Galvanised iron pipes.
iii) What features are considered when buying plastic pipes?
– Quality of material used for making the pipes
– Size of the pipes i.e diameter/ length
– Working pressure of the pipes.
e) Name the types of water pumps to be used on the farm.
– Centrifugal / rotodynamic
– Piston/ reciprocating pumps
f) i) Why should water be treated before use?
– Kill disease causing organisms
– Remove chemical impurities
– Remove bad smell and taste
– Remove sediments and other solids.
ii) State the methods of treating water on the farm.
– Chlorination/ chemicals
– Sedimentation/ decanting
iii) How is water used on the farm?
– Domestic use e.g drinking, washing, cooking
– Processing farm produce
– Cooling farm engines
– Solution of chemicals e.g
– Livestock drinking
– Washing animals and farm structures
– Mixing with building materials e.g concrete, mud
– Irrigation purposes
– Operating grinding mill
– Generating hydro-electric power
3. a) i) What is irrigation?
– Artificial application of water to the soil for the purpose of supplying sufficient amount to crops.
ii) List the factors to consider in deciding to irrigate crops.
– Type of soil
– Capital availability
– Types of crops to be grown
– Source of water/ water availability/ rainfall pattern
– Size o land to be irrigated
– Profitability of irrigation.
b) List the major types of irrigation
– Overhead/ sprinkler
– Drip/ trickle
4. a) What is land reclamation?
– The practice of putting unusable land into a form that can be used for agricultural production.
b) State the importance of land reclamation
– To make land agriculturally productive
– To increase food production
– To reduce population pressure/ pressure on land
– To make uninhabitable areas habitable
c) List the methods re
– Draining swampy land
– Irrigating dry land
– Terracing steep land/ soil erosion
– Afforestation/ reafforestation/ planting trees in wasteland
– Control of tsetseflies
– Deforestation/ bush clearance/ clearing forests.
Agriculture form one topics and lesson notes 4
1. a) i) What are farm
– For planning and making decision
– Provide information for income tax assessment
– To determine farmer’s credit worthiness/ for loans
– Compare performance at different times
– Compare performance of different enterprises
– Compare performance of different farms
– To solve disputes when farmer dies without a will
– Provide history of the farm
– Determine profits and losses
– For partners to share profit losses or bonuses.
b) List types of records kept on mixed farms.
– Production records
– Health records
– Field operations
– Breeding records
c) List types of records kept by crop farmers.
– Field operations
2. a) i) What are livestock
– domesticated animals
ii) Give examples of livestock
– Cattle, poultry, sheep, goat, pigs, bees, fish, donkey, camel
b) i) Explain the role of livestock in human life food supply.
– Source of income
– Raw materials for industry
– Source of employment
– Cultural uses e.g dowry, sacrifices, etc
– Biological cooks e.g cocks
– For sports and recreation.
ii) List factors that affect livestock industry in Kenya.
– Tradition and belief
– Product/ input prices
– Selling prices marketing
– Climatic conditions
– Communication/ transport
– Diseases and parasites.
c) i) List dairy breeds of cattle
– Friesian, Ayrshire, Guernsey, Jersey
ii) State their characteristics.
– Triangular shaped
Well attached udder
– Little flesh on the body
Short, well set legs
– Ling, thin neck
– Wide spring of ribs
Long, thin tail.
d) i) Name beef cattle breeds.
– Boran, Aberdean Angus, Hereford, Galloway, Charolais.
ii) What are the characteristics of beef cattle.
– Blocky/ squared/ rectangular shape
– Low set/ have short legs
– Have a fleshy body
– Have short, thin necks
– Smaller udders.
e) Name the important rabbit breeds in Kenya.
– Chinchilla, earlops, New Zealand, White, Kenya white, Californian Angora, Flemish giant.
f) i) Which is the common species of camel in Kenya?
– Single humped/ dromedary
ii) State the uses of camels
– Milk production
– Meat production
– Provide leather, wool and
– Transport people/ loads
ii) State the general characteristics of camels.
– Beast of burden
– Provides meat, wool, milk and leather
– Adapted to life in dry regions
– Drink a lot of water
– Resistant to most diseases.
g) i) What is the reasons for keeping poultry?
– For meat and egg production.
ii) List the characteristics of broilers.
– Have red waxy combs and wattles
– Beak free from yellow pigmentation
– Abdomen soft and pliable to touch
– Good distance between pelvic bones and breastbone
– Well developed bones
– Bent is crescent shaped, moist and white in colour
– Body is light
iii) List the characteristics of broilers.
– Heavier and bigger than layer
– Grow very fast
– Females lay very few eggs.
h) Name the major breeds of sheep in Kenya and indicate the purpose they are kept for
– Hampshire down for meat
– Corriadace for multon and wool/ dual purpose
– Romney Marsh which is dual purpose
– Merino kept for wool
– South Down for mutton
– Locals e.g Black headed persia, Maasai sheep are kept for meat and skin production.
Agriculture form one topics and lesson notes 5
b) Name important goat breeds and their uses
– Dairy breeds are Toggenberg and saanen
– Dual purpose are Boer, Nubian
– Meat is Jamnapar
– Meat and skin is small E. A goat
– Wool/ fur is the Angora goat.
c) Name important pig breeds kept in Kenya.
– Large white
d) i) Give the meanings of exotic and to indigenous breeds.
– Exotic means imported breeds while indigenous means local breeds.
ii) State the characteristics of exotic cattle that make them better suited to marginal areas than exotic cattle breeds.
– Able to walk long distances in search of pasture and water
– Tolerate high ambient temperatures
– Tolerate tick-borne diseases.
iii) What are the advantages of keeping a Jersey cow instead of Friesian for production of milk?
– Can tolerate high temperatures
– High butter fat content
– Small size hence less food required
– Can utilize poor pasture well.
e) i) State the general characteristics of exotic cattle breeds.
– No humps
– Produce more milk
– Easily attacked by tropical diseases
– Susceptible to tropical heat
– Cannot tolerate hardy areas
– Early maturing
ii) Give the characteristics of indigenous cattle
– Are humped
– Produce less milk
– Good resistance to tropical diseases like East Coast Fever
– Tolerate hardy areas
– Can withstand tropical heat
– Late maturing