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Agriculture Notes Form 1

Agriculture Form One Notes (Q&A)

1.      a).  What is Agriculture?                    

The art and Science of crop and livestock production.

       b).  State the roles played by agriculture in national development

–          Food supply

–          Source of raw materials for industries

–          Employment opportunities

–          Foreign exchange earnings

–          Source of capital for development

–          Market for industrial goods.

c).  State the forms of employment in Agriculture

i.        Primary employment

–    Working on farms

ii.      Secondary employment

–     In agriculture – based industries

iii.    Tertiary employment

–          In distribution of farm produce.

       d).  i)  Briefly outline the problems that have hindered agricultural development

      in Kenya.

–          Lack of capital for investment

–          Pests and diseases of crops and livestock

–          Unpredictable climatic conditions

–          Fluctuation of market prices

–          Inadequate or poor storage structure leading to heavy lose

–          Inadequate technical know-how

–          Population pressure hence over-use of land

–          Poor communication

–          Perishability

–          Bulky commodity prices

ii)  Suggest ways in which these problems can be alleviated

–          Proper food preservation

–          Improved communication network

–          Industries located near bulky products

–          Extension services/ advice

–          Provide good seeds

–          Credit facilities

–          Pest and disease control

–          Irrigation

–          Proper storage facilities

–          Government price control.

2.      a) i)  What are the characteristics of shifting cultivation?

–          Limited capital for investment

–          Use of rudimentary tools and equipment

–          Small land usually cultivated

–          Slash and burn technique of clearing

–          Crops not properly managed.

ii)  State the problems associated with shifting cultivation.

–          A wasteful method of farming

–          Slow rate of regeneration of vegetation allowing soil erosion to take place

–          No incentive to develop land

–          No permanent structures are put up hence a lot of time wasted in moving or travelling to the homestead

–          A lot of time wasted in moving from one place to another.

b)     What is pastoralism?

–          A major system of keeping livestock and moving with them from place of search of better pasture and water for livestock.

c)      State the factors to consider in choosing a type of farm

–          Type of enterprise itself

–          Environmental factors

–          Knowledge and skills of the farmer about the enterprise

–          Available resources e.g labour and capital

–          Cultural factors/ social factors

–          Governmental policy

–          Type of market he is producing for.

d)     What is arable farming?

–          Growing of crops only.

e)      i) State the limitations of mixed farming

–          The farmer will obtain sustainable income throughout the year

–          The farmer will never experience total loss

–          Animals contribute manure to crops while crops contribute/ provide crop residues fed to animals.

–          Labour is utilized efficiently throughout the year

–          Animals can be used to do work in the farm e.g oxen ploughing

      ii)  State the limitations of mixed farming

–          Lack of enough land for more enterprises

–          Lack of enough capital

–          Lack of specialisation.

f)       i) Give the types of farming practised by small scale farmers

–          Arable farming

–          Pastoralism

–          Mixed farming

ii)      Name the types of large scale farming

–          Plantations

–          Ranching

iii) Why does the Kenya government put a lot of emphasis on ranching?

–       Because arable land is becoming smaller

–       Ranching will lead to higher production of livestock to meet the high demand for meat

iv) State the common features of ranching as a farming system:

–       Done in marginal areas with poor pasture

–       System is extensive

–       Extension services provided

–       Improved pastures

–       Selective livestock breeding

–       High level livestock management.

g)   i)  State the advantages of plantation farming

–       Provision of employment

–       Revenue to government

–       High outputs

–       Foreign exchange earner

–       Economies of large scale production

–       Other activities done e.g processing.

ii)   State the disadvantages of plantations.

–       Overdependence on one enterprise

–       High initial capital required.

iii) State the major characteristics of plantation farming.

–       Most of the work is mechanised

–       Requires skilled and qualified personnel

–       Large tracts of land used

–       Sometimes run by a company or the government or individuals

–       The aim is to produce enough for local consumption and export market.

–       Provides a lot of employment

–       High output and quality of products

–       Enjoys the economies of large scale production

–       Scientific methods of farming used

–       High investments of capital.

3.      a)  List the ecological factors affecting agriculture.

–          Rainfall

–          Humidity

–          Soil

–          Temperature

–          Wind

–          Light

–          Topography

b)      Mention the aspects of rainfall which are important in crop production

–          Reliability

–          Distribution

–          Intensity of rainfall

–          Amount of rainfall

form one topics and lesson notes 2

b)      i)  What is optimal temperature?

–          Temperature at which plant growth is at its best.

ii) State the effects of temperature on crop production.

–          Photosynthesis

–          Respiration

–          Flowering and ripening

–          Quality of the products.

c)      State the effects of wind to crops.

–          Physical damage

–          Stress through evaporation / chilling

–          Spread of pests, weeds, diseases

–          Soil erosion

–          Increase of water and mineral uptake by increasing transpiration.

1.      a). i.  Define the term soil.

–          A collection of natural unconsolidated body covering the earth’s crust, where plants grow

ii).  Name the ways in which soil is important to growing plants.

–          Provides enchorage/ support for the plant

–          Provides nutrients

–          Provides moisture

b).  i)  State the factors which influence the soil forming process

–          Climatic factors e.g rainfall

–          Biotic factors e.g plants

–          Type of parent materials

–          Topography of land

–          Time taken by the process.

ii).  What biological agents influence the speed of the soil forming process?

–          Movement of animals in large groups

–          Man’s activities e.g cultivation, mining, road and railway construction.

–          Micro-organisms ie. Decomposing plant and animal remains and adding to soil

–          Earth worms, termites, moles etc mix up soil

–          Roots of higher plants force their way through the rock cracks and further break them physically.

c)      i)  Define the term soil Profile

–          The vertical arrangement of soil layers

ii)  How does soil profile influence plant growth?

–          Availability of plant nutrients

–          Anchorage of plant

–          Root penetration into soil

–          How long soil moisture/ its availability

–          Type of crop to be grown

d)     i) List the constituents of a fertile soil

–          Soil water

–          Soil air

–          Organic matter

–          Mineral salts

–          Living organisms.

ii) What role do micro-organisms play in soil?

–          Decompose dead organic remains and convert them into humus, a source of plant nutrients

–          Add nitrogen through nitrogen fixation.

e)      i) What is soil structure?

–          Aggregation of soil particles.

ii) State the farming practices that improve soil structure.

–          Addition of organic matter

–          Fallowing

–          Mixed cropping including cereals and legumes

–          Minimum tillage

–          Good crop rotation programme

–          Cultivation at right moisture content of soil

–          Liming.

iii) Why is a good soil structure desirable for growing crops.

–          Improves drainage and water infiltration.

–          Improves aeration

–          Minimises buildup of carbon dioxide in the soil which becomes toxic to crops and micro-organisms.

–          Facilitates better root penetration

–          Creates favourable conditions for activity of micro-organisms

–          Ensures adequate water retention for growing crops

–          It makes tillage easier.

f)       i) What is soil texture?

–          Proportion of different sizes of soil particles.

ii)      State the properties of soil that are influenced by its texture.

–          Aeration/ porosity

–          Drainage

–          Water holding capacity/ capillarity

–          Stickiness/ consistency

–          Cation exchange capacity / PH/ availability of nutrients

iii)    Give the types of soil based on texture.

–          Sandy soils

–          Clay soils

–          Loam soils

2.      a) State the advantages of using farm tools.

–          They make work easier i.e. increase working efficiency

–          Help to avoid drudgery

–          Timeliness of operations is achieved

–          Operations e.g. spraying to control pests and diseases are more exact hence effective

b)     List the factors that determine a farmer’s choice of tools and equipment.

–          Nature of work to be done

–          The financial status

–          Type of power used on the farm

–          Condition of land where the tool will be used.

c)      i) Why should tools and equipment be maintained well?

–          To reduce cost of repair/ replacement

–          To increase their durability/ last long

–          To increase work efficiency

–          Ensure safety of the user

–          To remain in good working order.

ii)  How should tools and equipment be maintained?

–          Store in sheds and racks

–          Clean and oil moving parts

–          Regularly sharpen cutting edges

–          Clean tools thoroughly after use

–          Keep metal parts rust free

–          Replace or repair broken/ wornout parts

–          Ensure there are no loose parts

–          Use tool for its intended purpose

–          Buy good quality tools and equipment

–          Always keep tools in good working condition

d)     List the safety precautions necessary for tools and equipment

–          Use the tool for its intended purpose

–          Sharp points should always point away from user/ people

–          Use protective clothing when working with tools

–          Always replace/ repair broken parts/ keep handles smooth

–          Handle delicate tools carefully/ store them safely.

e)      How is friction reduces in moving parts?

–          Apply oil

–          Apply grease

–          Generally lubricate moving parts

f)       Name the categories of farm tools and equipment.

–          Garden tools

–          Workshop tools

–          Livestock production tools

–          Masonery and plumbing tools

Agriculture form one topics and lesson notes 3

1.      a)  State the importance of land preparation.

–          Removal of weeds

–          Breaking the soil into smaller pieces

–          Mixing organic matter into soil/ bury crop aeration

–          Improve drainage/ water holding capacity

–          Destroy pests and disease causing organisms.

b) i) What is primary cultivation?

–          All operations carried cut in opening up land for crop promotion.

ii)  Which factors influence choice of tools for primary cultivation.

–          Type of soil

–          Availability of implements

–          Depth of ploughing

–          Type of tilth required

–          Condition of the land

–          Type of crop to be growth

–          Topography of the area

–          Financial ability of the farmer

–          Time remaining before planting

c)      i)  What is secondary cultivation?

–          Subsequent cultivation after primary cultivation to make seedbed fine and ready for planting.

ii)  Give reasons for secondary cultivation?

–          Removing weeds which have just germinated break soil into small clods

–          Make the field level

–          Mixing organic matter with soil

–          Make land ready for planting.

d)     i)  Define minimum tillage

–          To maintain soil structure

–          To reduce soil erosion

–          To reduce cost of seedbed preparation

–          To conserve soil moisture

–          To avoid damage to roots.

iii)  State reasons for practising minimum tillage.

–          Saves time

–          Reduces cost of production

–          Maintains soil structure/ controls soil erosion

–          Maintains soil moisture

e)      Name the factors that determine the number of tillage operations during seedbed preparation.

–          Implement used/ type of machinery used

–          The crop to be planted

–          Soil moisture

–          Initial condition of the land

–          Soil type/ soil condition

–          Skill of operator

–          Liability of soil to erosion/ topography

–          Capital available/ cost of operation

–          Time available for other operations.

2.      a)  List the sources of water on the farm.

–          Surface water

–          Rain water/ rainfall

–          Underground/ ground water

b)     How is water conveyed from one point to another?

–          Transporting in containers by vehicles/ animals/ human

–          Piping

–          Use of channels

c)      State how water is stored on a farm

–          Use of water tank/ container

–          Use of dam/ pond

d)     i)  Name the types of water pipes.

–          Metal pipes

–          Plastic pipes

–          Hose pipe

      ii)  Mention the types of metal pipe

–          Aluminium pipes

–          Galvanised iron pipes.

     iii)  What features are considered when buying plastic pipes?

–          Quality of material used for making the pipes

–          Size of the pipes i.e diameter/ length

–          Working pressure of the pipes.

e)      Name the types of water pumps to be used on the farm.

–          Centrifugal / rotodynamic

–          Semi-rotary

–          Piston/ reciprocating pumps

–          Hydram.

f)       i)  Why should water be treated before use?

–          Kill disease causing organisms

–          Remove chemical impurities

–          Remove bad smell and taste

–          Remove sediments and other solids.

ii)  State the methods of treating water on the farm.

–          Boiling

–          Chlorination/ chemicals

–          Aeration

–          Sedimentation/ decanting

–          Filtration

iii)  How is water used on the farm?

–          Domestic use e.g drinking, washing, cooking

–          Processing farm produce

–          Cooling farm engines

–          Solution of chemicals e.g

–          Livestock drinking

–          Washing animals and farm structures

–          Mixing with building materials e.g concrete, mud

–          Irrigation purposes

–          Operating grinding mill

–          Generating hydro-electric power

3.      a) i)  What is irrigation?

–          Artificial application of water to the soil for the purpose of supplying sufficient amount to crops.

          ii)  List the factors to consider in deciding to irrigate crops.

–          Type of soil

–          Capital availability

–          Types of crops to be grown

–          Source of water/ water availability/ rainfall pattern

–          Size o land to be irrigated

–          Profitability of irrigation.

       b) List the major types of irrigation

–          Overhead/ sprinkler

–          Sub-surface

–          Surface

–          Drip/ trickle

4.      a)  What is land reclamation?

–          The practice of putting unusable land into a form that can be used for agricultural production.

b)     State the importance of land reclamation

–          To make land agriculturally productive

–          To increase food production

–          To reduce population pressure/ pressure on land

–          To make uninhabitable areas habitable

c)      List the methods re

–          Draining swampy land

–          Irrigating dry land

–          Terracing steep land/ soil erosion

–          Afforestation/ reafforestation/ planting trees in wasteland

–          Control of tsetseflies

–          Deforestation/ bush clearance/ clearing forests.

Agriculture form one topics and lesson notes 4

1.      a)  i)  What are farm

–          For planning and making decision

–          Provide information for income tax assessment

–          To determine farmer’s credit worthiness/ for loans

–          Compare performance at different times

–          Compare performance of different enterprises

–          Compare performance of different farms

–          To solve disputes when farmer dies without a will

–          Provide history of the farm

–          Determine profits and losses

–          For partners to share profit losses or bonuses.

b)     List types of records kept on mixed farms.

–          Production records

–          Health records

–          Field operations

–          Feeding

–          Inventory

–          Breeding records

c)      List types of records kept by crop farmers.

–          Field operations

–          Marketing

–          Production

–          Labour

–          Inventory.

2.      a) i) What are livestock

–          domesticated animals

ii)  Give examples of livestock

–          Cattle, poultry, sheep, goat, pigs, bees, fish, donkey, camel

b) i) Explain the role of livestock in human life food supply.

–          Source of income

–          Raw materials for industry

–          Source of employment

–          Cultural uses e.g dowry, sacrifices, etc

–          Biological cooks e.g cocks

–          For sports and recreation.

ii)  List factors that affect livestock industry in Kenya.

–          Tradition and belief

–          Product/ input prices

–          Management

–          Capital

–          Selling prices marketing

–          Climatic conditions

–          Communication/ transport

–          Diseases and parasites.

c)  i) List dairy breeds of cattle

–          Friesian, Ayrshire, Guernsey, Jersey

ii)  State their characteristics.

–          Triangular shaped

Well attached udder

–          Little flesh on the body

Short, well set legs

–          Ling, thin neck

Feminine appearance

–          Wide spring of ribs

Long, thin tail.

d)     i)  Name beef cattle breeds.

–          Boran, Aberdean Angus, Hereford, Galloway, Charolais.

ii)  What are the characteristics of beef cattle.

–          Blocky/ squared/ rectangular shape

–          Low set/ have short legs

–          Have a fleshy body

–          Have short, thin necks

–          Smaller udders.

e)      Name the important rabbit breeds in Kenya.

–          Chinchilla, earlops, New Zealand, White, Kenya white, Californian Angora, Flemish giant.

f)       i)  Which is the common species of camel in Kenya?

–          Single humped/ dromedary

ii)  State the uses of camels

–          Milk production

–          Meat production

–          Provide leather, wool and

–          Transport people/ loads

ii)  State the general characteristics of camels.

–          Beast of burden

–          Provides meat, wool, milk and leather

–          Adapted to life in dry regions

–          Drink a lot of water

–          Resistant to most diseases.

g)      i) What is the reasons for keeping poultry?

–          For meat and egg production.

ii)      List the characteristics of broilers.

–          Have red waxy combs and wattles

–          Beak free from yellow pigmentation

–          Abdomen soft and pliable to touch

–          Good distance between pelvic bones and breastbone

–          Well developed bones

–          Bent is crescent shaped, moist and white in colour

–          Body is light

iii)       List the characteristics of broilers.

–          Heavier and bigger than layer

–          Grow very fast

–          Females lay very few eggs.

h)     Name the major breeds of sheep in Kenya and indicate the purpose they are kept for

–          Hampshire down for meat

–          Corriadace for multon and wool/ dual purpose

–          Romney Marsh which is dual purpose

–          Merino kept for wool

–          South Down for mutton

–          Locals e.g Black headed persia, Maasai sheep are kept for meat and skin production.

Agriculture form one topics and lesson notes 5

b)     Name important goat breeds and their uses

–          Dairy breeds are Toggenberg and saanen

–          Dual purpose are Boer, Nubian

–          Meat is Jamnapar

–          Meat and skin is small E. A goat

–          Wool/ fur is the Angora goat.

c)      Name important pig breeds kept in Kenya.

–          Large white

–          Saddleback

–          Landrace

–          Hampshire

d)     i)  Give the meanings of exotic and to indigenous breeds.

–          Exotic means imported breeds while indigenous means local breeds.

ii)      State the characteristics of exotic cattle that make them better suited to marginal areas than exotic cattle breeds.

–          Able to walk long distances in search of pasture and water

–          Tolerate high ambient temperatures

–          Tolerate tick-borne diseases.

iii)    What are the advantages of keeping a Jersey cow instead of Friesian for production of milk?

–          Can tolerate high temperatures

–          High butter fat content

–          Small size hence less food required

–          Can utilize poor pasture well.

e)      i) State the general characteristics of exotic cattle breeds.

–          No humps

–          Produce more milk

–          Easily attacked by tropical diseases

–          Susceptible to tropical heat

–          Cannot tolerate hardy areas

–          Early maturing

ii)  Give the characteristics of indigenous cattle

–          Are humped

–          Produce less milk

–          Good resistance to tropical diseases like East Coast Fever

–          Tolerate hardy areas

–          Can withstand tropical heat

–          Late maturing