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agriculture paper 1 questions and answers

SECTION A (30MARKS)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided

1. State two reasons for treating water for us on the farm                                                                 (1mk)

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2. State three disadvantages of communal land tenure system                                                         (1½mks)

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3. Name three methods of grafting that are used in propagation of plants                                       (1½mks)

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4. State two practices done during hardening-off of seedlings in a nursery bed.                              (1mk)

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5. State two roles of humus in the soil that are beneficial to crops                                                    (1mk)

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6. Distinguish between staking and propping as a field management practice on crops                  (1mk)

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7. Name three human activities that may influence soil erosion                                                        (1½mks)

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8. Give two factors which characterize intensive farming                                                                  (1mk)

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9. State three reasons why organic farming is encouraged in farming                                               (1½mks)

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11. State four ways of increasing labour efficiency on the farm                                                       (2mks)

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12. State three objectives of land reforms that are taking place in Kenya                                         (1½mks)

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13. State two reasons for seed treatment of tree species before planting                                           (1mk)

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14.state  three  factors  which affects the quality of  standing  forage  given  to  livestock            (1½mks)

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15. State three reasons for draining swampy land before growing crops                                          (1½mks)

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16. Give three factors that determine spacing of beans                                                                     (1½mks)

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17. Give three factors that determine depth of ploughing during land preparation                          (1½mks)

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18. State four advantages of applying lime in clay soil                                                                     (2mks)

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19. State four reasons for using certified seeds for planting                                                             (2mks)

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20. State four ways by which Re-afforestation help in land reclamation                                          (2mks)

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21. State two possible causes of swelling on the roots of legume crops                                            (1mk)

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SECTION B (20MARKS)

Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

22. The diagram below is of a tomato plant. Study it and answer the questions that follow:-

     a) State three management practices that have not been carried on the plant above                    (1½mks)

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    b) For each management practice state one reason why it should be carried  out              (1½mks)

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 c) Name two diseases that attack the crop above in the field                                                           (2mks)

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23 . Use the diagram below of irrigation method to answer the questions that follow.

    a) Identify the method of irrigation                                                                                                            (½mk)

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   b) State four advantages of the above irrigation system                                                                 (2mks)

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 c) State three factors that determine the type of irrigation on the farm                                           (1½mks)

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d) State two disadvantages o f the above system of irrigation                                                          (1mk)

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24. Below is a diagram showing soil erosion control method

      a) Identify the structure used to control soil erosion                                                                    (1mk)

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     b) What is the function of the structure made                                                                               (1mk)

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  c) Why was soil not put on the upper side of the trench made                                                        (1mk)

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   d) State four effects if water was allowed into the cultivated land                                                           (2mks)

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25. Below are diagrams showing vegetative material used for propagation.

       a) Name the propagation materials                                                                                              (2mks)

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      b) What is the term used for inducing B to start germinating?                                                    (1mk)

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     c) State four advantages of vegetative propagation on crop production                                      (2mks)

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SECTION C (40MARKS)

Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided at the end of the section.

26. Explain Napier grass production under the following  sub-headings

       i) Seedbed preparation                                                                                                                 (5mks)

       ii) Planting                                                                                                                                    (5mks)

       iii) Fertilizer application                                                                                                               (2mks)

       iv) Weed control                                                                                                                          (5mks)

        v) Utilization                                                                                                                               (3mks)

27.a) Explain  the principle that govern the  operations of farmers’  co-operative societies             (6mks)

     b) Explain the role of agricultural cooperatives in Kenya                                                             (6mks)

     c) Explain various functions of agricultural marketing                                                                  (8mks)

28.a) outline five activities that  may be  undertaken in organic farming                                           (5mks)

      b) Outline five importance of irrigation                                                                                        (5mks)

      c) Explain five advantages of crop rotation                                                                                  (5mks)

      d) Explain five problems farmers face in marketing agricultural products                                   (5mks)

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    a) Identify the method of irrigation                                                                                                           

            Trinkle irrigation                                                                                                         1x ½ = ½ mk

   b) State four advantages of the above irrigation system                                                                

  • Little water required
  • Done on nay topography
  • Control weeds between rows
  • Water under low pressure
  • Prevent fungal diseases                                                                                               4x ½ = 2 mks

 c) State three factors that determine the type of irrigation on the farm                                          

  • Where tree crops are planted
  • Little water supply
  • Enough capital for the method is available
  • Slope land                                                                                                                   3x ½ = 1 ½ mks

d) State two disadvantages o f the above system of irrigation                                                         

  • Difficult to carry field mechanization
  • Require a lot of capital
  • Require clean water
  • Regular repair of broken pipes and blocked pipes
  • Applicable where tree plants are grown                                                                      2x ½ =1 mk

24. Below is a diagram showing soil erosion control method

      a) Identify the structure used to control soil erosion                                                                   

            Cut off drain                                                                                                                           1×1=1 mk

     b) What is the function of the structure made                                                                              

            Collect water from uncultivated land and drain it into a water bay                                       1×1=1 mk

  c) Why was soil not put on the upper side of the trench made                                                       

            Will be washed by water back to the trench, filling it then to cultivated land

   d) State four effects if water was allowed into the cultivated land          

  • Will wash top fertile soil away
  • Will uproot planted crops
  • Expose unproductive soil
  • Soil washed will cover crops on the lower end of the farm                                       4x ½ = 2 mks

25. Below are diagrams showing vegetative material used for propagation.

       a) Name the propagation materials                                                                                              (2mks)

             A   Banana sucker

             B  Stem tubes      

            C     Bulb   

            D Stem cutting                                                                                                            4x ½ =2 mks

      b) What is the term used for inducing B to start germinating?                                                   

            Chitting                                                                                                                       1×1=1 mk

     c) State four advantages of vegetative propagation on crop production                                     

  • Grow faster
  • True copy of mother plant
  • Have no dormancy period
  • Easy to obtain                                                                                                             4x ½ = 2 mks

SECTION C (40MARKS)

Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided at the end of the section.

26. Explain Napier grass production under the following sub-headings

       i) Seedbed preparation                                                                                                                 (5mks)

  • Done during dry period/ done early
  • Clear vegetation/ remove stumps
  • Carry primary cultivation/ harrowing to
  • Make furrows/ holes
  • Spacing 90cm x 50cm for cutting and 90cm x 50cm for splits

       ii) Planting                                                                                                                                    (5mks)

  • At on set of rains/ early planting/ irrigate if necessary
  • Select variety for ecological condition of the area
  • Use health planting material
  • Place the planting material in holes/ furrows
  • Cover the planting material with soil to an appropriate depth
  • Use cuttings or splits
  • Select cutting from mature cane/ stems
  • Cutting should have 3-5 nodes

       iii) Fertilizer application                                                                                                               (2mks)

  • Apply phosphatic fertilizer at planting 200kg/ha
  • Apply manure before planting, 7-10 tonnes/ha
  • Top dress phosphorous fertilizer after 8 weeks after planting
  • Apply manure after harvesting and dig it      

       iv) Weed control                                                                                                                          (5mks)

  • Cultivation/ tillage/ mechanical
  • Uprooting
  • Slashing
  • Suitable herbicide application
  • Interplanting legumes as cover crops e.g. Desmodium,

        v) Utilization                                                                                                                               (3mks)

  • Cut and take to animals when proportion of leaf is higher than the stem/ 3-5 months after planting/ frequency 8 weeks
  • Cut down excess foliage to conserve as silage or hay
  • Cut and sold
  • Cut when mature to get stem cuttings for planting
  • Cut stems at 2.5 – 5cm above the ground surface
  • Use a sharp panga for harvesting
  • Chop forage into small pieces before feeding
  • Na[pier grass is cut, dried and used as mulching material

27.a) Explain  the principle that govern the  operations of farmers’  co-operative societies             (6mks)

  • Open membership
  • Equal rights
  • Share limit
  • Neutrality
  • Non- profit motive
  • Loyalty
  • Withdrawal of membership

     b) Explain the role of agricultural cooperatives in Kenya                                                             (6mks)

  • Provide education/ technical information to members
  • Negotiate for higher prices for members products
  • Market farmers produce
  • Help to negotiate for loans for members without security
  • Provide inputs to members at lower prices
  • Invest and pay out returns to members in form of dividends
  • Provide transportation, storage and use  of machinery to farmers    

     c) Explain various functions of agricultural marketing                                                                  (8mks)

  • Advertising: They advertise farm products in order to increase demand
  • Financing: Provide capital to carry out agricultural activities
  • Transportation: Provide transport to farm produce to the areas of consumption
  • Storage: store farm produce after harvest in order to minimize losses
  • Selling: Sell on behalf of the farmer
  • Packing: pack the farm produce to reduce storage space and make transportation easy
  • Processing: process the farm produce in order to provide a variety, increase value and prolongs shelf life
  • Grading: putting into grades to provide uniform standards
  • Assembling: gathering the farm produce for bulking and transportation
  • Insurance: Bearing risks by protecting farm damage

28.a) outline five activities that  may be  undertaken in organic farming                                           (5mks)

  • Mulching
  • Apply manure
  • Use medicinal plants to control parasites and diseases
  • Crop rotation
  • Rear livestock on natural organically grown pasture
  • Physical/ cultural/ biological/ pests, weeds and disease control

      b) Outline five importance of irrigation                                                                                        (5mks)

  • Enable crop production during dry season
  • Reclaim arid and semi arid land for farming
  • Supplement rainfall in crop production
  • Help provides enough water to crops that require a lot of water like rice
  • Creates favourable temperature for proper plant growth
  • Enable supply of fertilizer in irrigation water
  • Make possible to grow crops in special structures like green house

      c) Explain five advantages of crop rotation                                                                                  (5mks)

  • Improves soil fertility: where legumes are included nitrogen is fixed/ added in the soil
  • Control pests and diseases: disrupts the life cycle of certain pests and diseases
  • Control weeds: control weeds which are specific to certain crops e.g. striga in cereals/ cover crops in a rotation will smother certain weeds
  • Better use of the soil nutrients: different crops (due to differing root systems) draw nutrients from varying soils horizons/ different crops require different nutrients
  • Control of soil erosion: cover crops included reduce soil erosion
  • Improve soil structure: When grass lays are included which during the period organic matter will accumulate to enrich the soil and improve soil structure

      d) Explain five problems farmers face in marketing agricultural products                                   (5mks)

  • Perishability: detoxation of quality
  • Seasonability: affect price and storage problems
  • Bulkiness: occupy large space hence problems of handling and storage
  • Storage: lack of storage facilities on farms
  • Poor transport system: Lead to spoilage of farm produce
  • Change in market demand: time between planning and actual production create lack of market
  • Lack of market information: concerning prices, how much to produce, where to sell goods; farmers end up disposing of the surplus at throw away prices
  • Fluctuation in market price due to seasonality in nature of agricultural products
  • Poor marketing systems for some produce: Result in lack of market

AGRICULTURE

 PAPER 1  MARKING SCHEME

FORM FOUR

KAKAMEGA CENTRAL

1. State two reasons for treating water for us on the farm

  • Remove chemical impurities
  • Remove foreign material
  • Remove disease earning organisms
  • Remove bad smell & taste                                                                                          1x ½ = 1mk

2. State three disadvantages of communal land tenure system                                                        

  • No land improvement
  • Exploitation of land
  • Soil erosion
  • Lack long term investments
  • Spread of pests and diseases
  • Cannot use land to set warn to improvement                                                             3x ½ =  ½ mks

3. Name three methods of grafting that are used in propagation of plants              

  • Whip are tongue grafting
  • Side grafting
  • Approach grafting
  • Bark grafting
  • Notch grafting                                                                                                            3x ½ = 1 ½ mks

4. State two practices done during hardening-off of seedlings in a nursery bed.                             

  • Gradual removal of shade
  • Gradual reduce of watering                                                                                        ½ x 2=1 mk

5. State two roles of humus in the soil that are beneficial to crops   

  • Provide nutrients
  • Increase water holding capacity
  • Increase soil temperature
  • Neutral soil PH                                                                                                           2 x ½ = 1 mk

6. Distinguish between staking and propping as a field management practice on crops                 

            Staking is supporting tall varieties of tomatoes using a stick fixed next to the plant and tied with

             sisal string while propping is supporting banana plant with sticks Mark as a whole= 1 mk

7. Name three human activities that may influence soil erosion                                                       

  • Ploughing up and down slope
  • Over cultivation
  •  Planting annual crops on slopes
  • Overstocking/ burning vegetation/ clean weeding
  • Over irrigation                                                                                                             3x ½ = 1 ½ mk

8. Give two factors which characterize intensive farming                                                                 

  • Small farms
  • Huge capital
  • Skilled labour
  • Produce for sale
  • Mechanization done                                                                                                    2x ½ = 1 mk

9. State three reasons why organic farming is encouraged in farming                                              

  • Cheap
  • Environmental friendly
  • No chemical residues in produce                                                                                3x ½ = 1 ½ mks

10. Three disadvantages of soil without good structure

  • Poor air circulation
  • Poor water movement
  • No water retention                                                                                                      3x ½ = 1 ½ mks

11. State four ways of increasing labour efficiency on the farm                                                      

  • Training them
  • Giving incentives
  • Supervision
  • Good operator – worker relationship
  • Farm mechanization
  • Assigning tasks according to skills & specialization
  • Proper remuneration : Attractive salaries                                                                    4x ½ =2 mks

12. State three objectives of land reforms that are taking place in Kenya                                        

  • Increase output from land
  • To meet changing national and market demands
  • To achieve increasing productivity of both land and labour
  • Proper utilization of national land resources and arid lands
  • Increases commercial farming
  • Increase land conservation and improvement                                                             3x ½ = 1 ½ mks

13. State two reasons for seed treatment of tree species before planting                                          

  • Break dormancy
  • Control pests and diseases                                                                                          2x ½ = 1 mk

14. State three factors which affects the quality of standing forage given to livestock                  

  • Forage species
  • Stage of harvesting
  • Mode of feeding                                                                                                         3x ½ = 1 ½ mks

15. State three reasons for draining swampy land before growing crops                                         

  • Increase soil volume
  • Improve aeration
  • Increases activities of micro organisms
  • Control erosion
  • Reduce toxic substance in soil                                                                                    ½ x3= 1 ½ mks

16. Give three factors that determine spacing of beans                                                                    

  • Type of soil
  • Moisture in soil
  • Species/ size of bean plant
  • Machinery to be used
  • Purpose of beans
  • Stand in the field                                                                                                        ½ x3=1 ½ mks

17. Give three factors that determine depth of ploughing during land preparation 

  • Crop to be planted
  • Implement available
  • Type of soil                                                                                                                 ½ x3=1 ½ mks

18. State four advantages of applying lime in clay soil                                                                    

  • Lower soil acidity
  • Increase calcium content
  • Hastens decomposition of organic matter
  • Improve soil structure/ improve drainage
  • Facilitates availability and absorption of nitrogen and phosphorous
  • Improve legume nodulation and nitrogen fixation
  • Increase multiplication of micro- organisms                                                               ½ x 4=2 mks

19. State four reasons for using certified seeds for planting                                                            

  • High yielding
  • Quality produce
  • High germination percentage
  • Grow faster
  • Less pests and disease attack                                                                                      ½ x4=2 mks

20. State four ways by which Re-afforestation help in land reclamation     

  • Add organic matter from falling leaves
  • Recycles soil erosion
  • Control soil erosion
  • Improve drainage of swampy areas
  • Play part in hydrological cycle                                                                                    4x ½ =2 mks

21. State two possible causes of swelling on the roots of legume crops                                           

  • Infection by nematodes
  • Nodulation/ nitrogen fixing bacteria                                                                           2×1=2 mks

SECTION B (20MARKS)

Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

22. The diagram below is of a tomato plant. Study it and answer the questions that follow:-

     a) State three management practices that have not been carried on the plant above                   

  • Pruning
  • Staking
  • Weed control                                                                                                  3x ½ = 1 ½ mks

  b) For each management practice state one reason why it should be carried out                

  • Pruning
  • Staking – prevents lying on ground where fruits are soiled and get diseases

                      Easy movement in field                                                                              1x ½ = ½ mk

  • Weeding – reduce competition for nutrients, water and space                            1x ½ =1/2 mk

 c) Name two diseases that attack the crop above in the field                                                          

  • Tomato blight
  • Bacterial wilt
  • Blossom – end rot                                                                                                 2×1=2 mks

23 . Use the diagram below of irrigation method to answer the questions that follow.