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HISTORY MOCK EXAMS PAST PAPERS AND ANSWERS

             CONTENTS

1.   EMBU COUNTY COMMON EVALUATION

2.  KISII CENTRAL DISTRICT JOINT EVALUATION

3.   ALLIANCE GIRLS HIGH SCHOOL

4.  STAREHE BOYS  CENTER

5.  ALLIANCE  BOYS  HIGH SCHOOL TRIAL EXAMINATION

6.  NAMBALE  DISTRICT JOINT EXAMINATION

7.  MERU CENTRAL COMMON EVALUATION

8.   NYERI  NORTH REGION JOINT EXAMINATION

9.  THIKA(FORM FOUR MID YEAR CONTINUOUS  ASSESMENT TEST)

10.  KITUI WESTFORM FOUR EVALUATION EXAMINATION

11.  NYERI  SOUTH  FORM FOUR JOINT EVALUATION  

NAME ……………………………………………… ADM NO. ………………………

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

2 ½ HOURS

July/August 2011

FORM FOUR MID YEAR CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT TEST

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

2 ½ HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS

This paper contains three sections: A, B, and C.

Answer all the questions in A, three in B, and two in C

This paper consists of 3 printed pages

Please Turn Over

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

Answer all questions in this section.

1. State two written records about East Africa before 1500 AD.                                                      (2 mks)

2. Name two sub-tribes of the Abaluhyia.                                                                                          (2mks)

3. Give two ways in which the knowledge of iron working helped in the migrations of Bantu in Kenya.                                                                                                                                       (1 mk)

4. State two ways in which mission stations promoted spread of Christianity in Kenya.                  (2 mks)

5. Identify the British Company used to initially administer East Africa.                                         (1 mk)

6. Identify one reason why Africans were not allowed to grow cash crops during the colonial period.                                                                                                                               (1 mk)

7. Give two reasons why the Akamba exhibited mixed reaction to establishment of colonial rule. (2 mks)

8. State two features of the political organisatons formed in Kenya before 1939.                            (2 mks)

9. Give the main reason why K.A.N.U refused to form government after winning the elections in 1961                                                                                                                            (1 mk)

10. State two major roles played by African chiefs during the colonial period.                                (2 mks)

11. Give one function of the Judiciary.                                                                                              (1 mk)

12. Who is the commander – in – chief of the armed forces in Kenya.                                             (1 mk)

13. Give three ways in which a person may become a member of parliament in Kenya.                   (3 mks)

14. Name the process through which the citizens of Kenya will vote to either adopt or reject  the proposed  constitution .                                                                                                   (1 mk) 

15. Name the Head of the Legislature in Kenya.                                                                               (1 mk)

16. Which government institution is responsible for collecting government revenue.                       (1mk)

17. In which arm of the government does the civil service fall under.                                               (1 mk)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer any three questions.

18. (a) Why did the Miji  – kenda disperse from their original home-land at Shungwaya?                (3 mks)

      (b) Describe the political organization of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period.                  (12 mks)

19. (a) Why were the Portuguese interested in establishing control over the Kenyan coast

during the 16th century?                                                                                                          (5 mks)

      (b) Explain five effects of the Portuguese rule on the Kenyan coast.                                          (10 mks)

20. (a) Identify three African political associations formed between 1920 and 1939 in Kenya.       (3 mks)

      (b) Describe six factors that undermined African nationalists in Kenya between 1939

and 1963.                                                                                                                                (12 mks)

21. (a) State three methods that were used by the colonial government to acquire land

for European settlers in Kenya.                                                                                              (3 mks)

      (b) Describe the economic developments that took place in Kenya during the colonial

period.                                                                                                 (12 mks)

SECTION C  ( 30 MARKS)

Answer any two questions

22.(a) Mention five sources of revenue for local authorities in Kenya.                                  (5 mks)

     (b) Describe five challenges facing local Authorities in Kenya.                                        (10 mks)

23. (a) Give three main functions of the provincial administration in Kenya.                        (3mks)

      (b) Describe the functions the Interim Independent Electoral Commission of Kenya is expected to perform with regard to the conduction of elections in the country IIEC                                                                                                                                                                   (12mks)

24. (a) State the three pillars of Nyayoism.                                        (3 mks)

      (b) Describe six steps the government of Kenya has undertaken to

enhance industrial development since independence.                                                (12 mks)

NAME…………………………………………………………….….  INDEX NO…………………

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2

2 ½ HOURS

July/August 2011

FORM FOUR MID YEAR CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT TEST

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2

2 ½    HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES.

This paper consists of three sections: A, B C

Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C

This paper consist 3 of printed pages

                                                                                                                                     Please Turn Over

             SECTION A ( MARKS)

Answer all the question in this section

1. State one disadvantage of using oral traditions as a source of history and government                            (1mk)

2. What is the scientific name given to the species referred to as “Upright man?”                                        (1mk)

3. Identify two centres of crop domestication in Europe                                                                               (2mks)

4. Identify the main item of trade which was exported to the south from Taghaza             

    During the Trans – Saharan trade                                                                                                               (1mk)

5. Give two social factors which led to the growth of Athens                                                                       (2mks)

6. Identify two political factors that have undermined industrialization in third world

     countries                                                                                                                                                     (2mks)

7. Give the main strategic factor behind the scramble for colonies in Africa by the European  Powers in the nineteenth century                                                                                                                    (1mk)

8. Give one way in which the invention of railway transport promoted industrial

    development in Europe during the nineteenth century                                                                                (1mk)

9. Give two reasons why the British used direct rule to administer Zimbabwe                                             (2mks)

10. Name the two titles used to refer to Swahili officials  in the administration of German

      Tanganyika                                                                                                                                                (2mks)

11. State two ways in which the pan-African movement contributed to the

       development of Nationalism in Africa                                                                                                    (2mks)

12. State two ways in which the treaty of Versailles signed in 1919 contributed to the second World war of 1939 – 1945                                                                                                                (2mks)

13. State two economic problems that the Democratic Republic of Congo faced during the  Rule of Mobutu sese seko                                                                                                                 (2mks)

14. Identify two autonomous institutions of the revived East African community                                       (2mks)

15. Give two classes of Human rights                                                                                                            (2mks)

            SECTION B (  45 MARKS)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

17. (a) Give three processes involved in crop domestication by early man                                        (3mks)

      (b) Explain six ways through which developing countries can enhance food security                (12mks)

18. (a) Give three advantages of written messages over horn- blowing and drum- beats                  (3mks)

      (b) Explain six positive effects of telecommunication on the modern society                             (12mks)

19. (a) What challenges were faced by the merchants during the Trans-Saharan Trade                    (5mks)

      (b)Explain the social effects of the Trans-Atlantic Trade on the people of W.Africa                  (10mks)

20. (a) Give three economic reasons why the European nations competed in the 2nd half

            of the 19th  century                                                                                                                  (3mks)

      (b) Explain the impact of the partition of Africa by the Europeans on Africans                         (12mks)

            SECTION C (30 MARKS)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

21. (a) Identify three duties of the Omenehene among the pre-colonial Asante                                (3mks)

      (b) Describe the political organization of the Buganda Kingdom in the 19th century                  (12mks)

22. (a) Give three reasons why NAM was formed                                                                             (3mks)

      (b) Explain six factors that affected the performance of NAM                                                   (12mks)

23. (a) Identify three levels of elections in U.S.A                                                                              (3mks)

      (b) Explain six duties of the U.S.A President                                                                              (12mks)

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

July/August 2011

FORM FOUR MID YEAR CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT TEST

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

1. State two written records about East Africa before 1500 AD.                  (2 mks)

  1. Periplus of Erythrean sea
  2. Natural history
  3. Geographia
  4. Accounts of Arabs traders

                                                                                                            (1 x 2 = 2 mks)

2. Two sub tribes of the Abaluhyia.                                                                (2 mks)

  1. Bukusu
  2. Maragoli
  3. Samia
  4. Khisa
  5. Tiriki
  6. Idaho
  7. Bunyore
  8. Wanga

(1 x 2 = 2 mks)

3. Give two ways in which the knowledge of iron working helped in the migration of the Bantu   (2 mks)

  1. Making weapons that enabled them to conquer communities
  2. Made tools that they used to clear new settlements.

(1 x 2 = 2 mks)

4. Two ways in which mission stations promoted spread of Christianity in Kenya   (2 mks)

  1. Served as residential areas for missionaries
  2. Had churches which Africans attended
  3. Served as schools where Africans were taught literacy enabling them to read the bible
  4. Were training centers for catechists
  5. They served as health centres and those who came for treatment were preached to.

(1 x 2 = 2 mks)

5. Identify the British company used to initially administer East Africa.                  (1 mk)

Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEACO)

(1 x 1 = 1 mk)

6. Why African were not allowed to grow cash crops in colonial Kenya.

For them to continue providing labour to European farmers.

To prevent competition from African farmers.

To control spread of diseases and pests from African farms

(1 x 1 = 1 mk)

7. Give two reasons why the Akamba exhibited mixed reaction to establishment of colonial rule. (2 mks)

Their political organization was decentralized.

Rivalry between wealthy traders/ individuals in the area.

They initially misunderstood the intentions of the Europeans as being just passers-by.

(1 x 2 = 2 mks)

8. Two features of political organizations formed before 1939.                                             (2 mks)

  1. Ethnic based/ lacked national outlook
  2. Addressed specific grievances facing that ethinic group only.
  3. Demands focused on the welfare of the people/not equality or independence.
  4. They were led by educated Africans.
  5. They were non-millitant.

(1 x 2 = 2 mks)

9. Why K.A.N.U refused to form government in 1961.                                                        (1 mk)

            To demand the release of Jomo Kenyatta

                                                                                                                        (1 x 1 = 1 mk)

10. State two major roles played by African chiefs during the colonial period.                    (2 mks)

  1. Collecting taxes.
  2. Recruiting labour for Europeans.
  3. Maintaining law and order among the Africans.

(1 x 2 = 2 mks)

11. One function of Judiciary                                                                                                             (1 mk)

            i)          Interpreting law

            ii)         Adjudicating on criminal and civil matters

            iii)        Settling disputes between parties

            iv)        Protecting constitutional rights and freedoms of individuals.

            v)         Administering justice/punishing criminals.

                                                                                                                        (1 x 1 = 1 mk)

12. The commander – in – chief of the armed forces of Kenya

            i) President

                                                                                                                        (1 x 1 = 1 mk)

13. Two ways by which one may become a member of parliament.                                      (2 mks)

            i)          Through elections- general or by elections

            ii)         Being nominated by a political party and appointed by president

            iii)        By virtue of being elected speaker or appointed attorney general.

                                                                                                            (1 x 2 = 2 mks)

14. Name the process through which the citizens of Kenya will vote to either adopt or reject the proposed constitution                                                                                                                 ( 1 mk)

i)          A referendum

                                                                                                            (1 x 1 = 1 mk)

15. Head of legislature in Kenya.                                                                                           (1 mk)

            i) The speaker

                                                                                                                        (1 x 1 = 1 mk)

16. Which government institution is responsible for collecting government revenue?                       (1 mk)

            i)          Kenya Revenue Authority      (K.R.A)

                                                                                                                                                (1 x 1 = 1 mk)

17. Arm of government that civil service falls under.                                                                        (1 mk)

            i)          The Executive

                                                                                                                                                (1 x 1 = 1 mk)

SECTION B  (45 MARKS )

Answer any three questions from this section

18. (a) Why did the Miji- kenda disperse from their original homeland at Shungwaya?       (3 mks)

            i)          Attacks by the Oromo/ External attacks.

            ii)         Population pressure.

            iii)        Civil wars/ internal conflict.

            iv)        Out break of epidemics.

                                                                                                            (1 x 3 = 3 mks)

    (b) Describe the political organization of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period.        (12 mks)

            i).         The Maasai were ruled by a council of elders who consisted of ritual

                        leaders, clan heads and family heads.

ii).        The council of elders was responsible for maintaining law and order/ settled disputes.

iii).       The age-set system was important in determining different political roles.

iv).       There existed a class of warriors/ morans who were used to defend the community and carry out raids.

            v).        There was a clan system among the Maasai but families were headed by the senior                              most male member

            vi).       There existed a politico-social leader entitled Oloibon who advised the community.

            vii).      Elders were highly respected by the youth and women.

                                                                                                                                                (2 x 6 = 12 mks)

19. (a)  Why Portuguese were interested in Kenya

            i).         To control trade with coastal towns

            ii).        To spread Christianity/revenge against Muslims who had controlled their motherland  for seven years/look for Prester John of Ethiopia.

            iii).       Strategic reasons- Kenyan coast was strategically located on the way to the East and could serve as a base for their trading and navy ships/ repair ships and get fresh supplies on way to India.

            iv).       Control Indian ocean trade

            v).        To find an alternative sea route to India because the land route had been closed by Turkey.

            vi).       They had well developed marine technology to control the ocean.

     (b)Six effects of Portuguese rule

  • Introduced new crops e.g. maize, sweet potatoes, bananas and use of farmyard manure.
  • Introduced new architectural designs of constructing buildings with massive walls e.g. fort Jesus.
  • They enriched the Swahili language by introducing some Portuguese words e.g. meza, mfinyo, faini etc.
  • Disruption of Indian ocean trade because of wars of conquest and rebellion against them and    ignoring other items of trade apart from gold.
  • Some towns declined as people migrated from them because of Portuguese brutality some where also burnt down.
  • Close link between Kenya and India was established.
  • Slave trade increased due to introduction of guns along the coast and this increased human suffering and insecurity.
  • Trade between East African coast and Arabia declined
  • Their harshness made Africans and Arabs to develop a negative altitude towards Christianity thus they did not succeed in converting them.

(5 x 2 = 10 mks)

20. (a). Identify three African political associations formed between 1920 and 1938 in Kenya       (3 mks)

            i).         Kikuyu Central Association    (KCA).

            ii).        East African Association       (EAA).

            iii).       Young Kavirondo Association.

            iv).       Kavirondo Tax payers welfare Association.

            v).        Taita Hills Association.

            vi).       Ukamba Members Association.

            v).        Young Kikuyu Association.

                                                                                                                                                (1 x 3 = 3 mks)

    (b)  Describe six factors that undermined African nationalists in Kenya between

           1939 and 1963                                                                                                                         (12 mks)

            i).         Harassment, detention and jailing of nationalists especially under the emergency laws

            ii).        Banning of political organizations especially during the war period and the emergency period.

iii).       Disunity among the African nationalists due to differences in political ideologies.

            iv).       Lack of adequate finances and other resources to manage the struggle.

            v).        African nationalists were denied access to mass media.

            vi).       The colonial government could use the mass media to discredit the activities                      of African nationalists.

vii).      Illiteracy among the Africans to be able to organize and inform them properly.

viii).     The restriction of movement through colonial ordinances e.g. Kipande laws.

ix).       Betrayal of African nationalists by some loyalist African collaborators.

                                                                                                                                    (2 x 6 = 12 mks)

21. (a). How colonial government acquired land

  • Signing treaties e.g. Maasai agreements of 1904 and 1911
  • By use of force e.g. Nandi
  • Declaring unoccupied land crown land                                                             (3 x 1 = 3 mks)   

     (b) Economic developments that took place during colonial period.

  • Transport and communication system e.g. construction of Railways and roads.

  –

– Agriculture -settler farming was encouraged that led to production for export and domestic use.

  • Africans were also encouraged to improve their farming leading to increased production of agricultural products.
  • Africans were later encouraged to grow some cash crops e.g. cotton, tea and coffee.
  • Introduction of money and establishment of banking industry led to economic growth.
  • Development of local and international trade/ commerce tool place.
  • Establishment of industries e.g. food industry promoted agricultural activities.
  • Exploitation of mineral resources e.g. soda ash at magadi.
  • Development of urban centres e.g. Nairobi, Nakuru, and Kisumu.
  • Introduction of exotic breeds of livestock e.g. sheep, pigs and cattle
  • Development of tourism industry e.g. establishment of game reserves and parks.
  • Establishment of research stations/centres to improve farming methods and breeds.
  • Development of fishing industry e.g. use of better fishing methods.

22. (a). The main sources of revenue for local Authorities in Kenya.

  • Grants from the Central Government.
    • Licenses e.g. trade licenses.
      • Fees on agricultural produce/cess. e.g. tea, coffee
      • Fines imposed on law breakers.
      • Rent on commercial, residential or industrial premises.
      • Loans and assistance from donors. Both local and international.
      • Profits that accrue from council e.g. refuse collection. Slaughter houses.
      • Rates on property.
      • Parking fees.
      • Hiring council facilities e.g. halls, playgrounds, stadiums.
      • Charges levied on commercial signposts/boards.
      • Sales of property e.g. land.

                                                                           Any 5 points 1 mark each max 5 marks

        (b) Five factors which undermine the performance of local authorities.

  • Weak financial resources base for many local authorities.
  • Inefficient system of tax collection
  • Tax evasion. Companies, Individuals and even the central government are heavily indebted to the local authorities.
  • Misappropriation and mismanagement of funds.
  • Lack of qualified personnel.
  • Poor working relationship between councilors and chief officers.
  • Political interference in the operations of local authorities.
  • Some local authorities are too small to operate effectively.
  • High population which strains local authorities leading to deterioration of services.
  • Over employment of workers.
  • Problem of street families.
  • Poor equipment e.g. outdated fire engines.
  • Poor planning.
  • Too much control by central government.
  • Election of illiterate councilors.
  • Widespread corruption.

5 x 2 = 10 marks

23. (a) Give three main functions of the provincial administration in Kenya.   (3 Mks)

            i).         To link the central government and the citizens.

ii).        To enhance national development by coordinating development committees at various                                levels

            iii).       To promote law and order in the provinces.

            iv).       To implement government policies and programmes.

            v).        To supervise and monitor government projects.

            vi).       To represent the central government at local levels.

                                                                                                                        (1 x 3 = 3 mks)

     (b) Describe the functions the Interim Independent Electoral Commission of Kenya (IIEC)

            is expected to perform with regard the conduction of elections in the country.       

            i)          Register voters, maintain and revise register of voter

            ii)         Prepare and distribute nomination paper ballot papers and boxes

            iii)        Supervise the casting and counting of votes.

            iv)        Give general direction and supervision of the administrative conduct of

                         presidential, National Assembly and local government elections

            v)         Divide the constituency into polling areas with polling stations

            vi)        Promote free and fair elections

            vii)       Promote voter education all over Kenya

            viii)      Receive money deposited by aspiring parliamentary candidates

            ix)        Conduct language proficiency tests for candidates nominated by their parties

                        to vie for elections

            x)         Announce the dates of election and by-elections

            xi)        Provide security through-out the election exercises

            xii)       Announce election results

            xiii)      Divide Kenya into constituencies, mark boundaries and name the constituencies

            xiv)      Review electoral areas (civil wards) their boundaries and names

                                                                                                                                    (2 x 6 = 12 mks)

24. (a) State the three pillars of Nyayoism                                                                             (3 mks)

                        i). Peace

                        ii).Love

                        iii).Unity

    (b) Describe six steps the government of Kenya has undertaken to enhance industrial

development since independence                                                                               (12 mks)

i).         Setting up of financial institutions to finance industrial projects e.g.

development finance company of Kenya DFCK.

ii).        Passing of the foreign investment Act of 1964 which allowed foreign investors to repatriate their profits hence encouraged them to invest in Kenya.

            iii).       Establishing of the Kenya industrial Estate (KIE) to facilitate expansion of

industrial zones in towns.

            iv).       Adopting measures to protect local industries from imports.

            v)         Setting up a number of statutory bodies to provide services which enhance

                        industrial development e.g. Kenya railways corporation, Kenya pipeline corporation etc.

            vi).       Creation of export processing zones (E.P.Z) to establish industries for exporting products  cheaply for a given number of years.

            vii).      Giving permission to foreign companies to prospect for minerals in Kenya.

            viii).     Stressing the inclusion of science and mathematics in schools curriculum as core subjects.

            ix).       Supporting the Jua kali sector.

                                                                                                                                    (2x 6 = 12 mks)

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2

July/August 2011

FORM FOUR MID YEAR CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT TEST

MARKING SCHEME

1.         – Oral information may not be accurate as it depends on the memory of the informant

            – Information tends to change or to be exaggerated/biased

            – Does not give accurate dates

            – Takes time to collect dates analyse material

                                                                                                            Any 1 point x 1 mark

2.         – Homo Erectus                                                                                                           1mk

3.         – Mesopotamia/sumeria/Denube valley          

                                                                                                            Any point x  1 mark

4.         – Salt                                                                                                                            1mk

5.         – Was a centre of religion

            – Strategically situated/security, defence

            – Centre of learning

                                                                                                            Any 2 x 1 mark

6.         – political instability

            – Inadequate technological know-how

            – lack of good government policies/planning 

                                                                                                            Any 2 points x 1 mark

7.         – The Egyptian question                                                                                              1mk

8.         – it facilitated the movement of bulky goods/raw materials                                       1mk

9.         – There were many British settlers in Zimbabwe

            – There was mistrust between the natives and the British

            – Zimbabwe had many minerals

                                                                                                                   Any 2 x 1 mark

10.       – Akidas

            – Jumbes

                                                                                                                                                2mks

11.       – It provides a forum for African nationalists to voice their grieverances

            – It sensifised Africans on the need to end colonialism

                                                                                                            2 points x 1 mk

12        – It imposed a heavy fine on Germany thus leading to economic hardship

            – Germany lost her overseas colonies

                                                                                                       2 point x 1 = 2mks

13.       – Economic slump due to high petroleum prices

            – Fluctuating prices of copper in the world market    

            – Heavy external debt

            – A run – away inflation rate

            – Poorly developed transport system

                                                                                                                        Any 2 x 1 mk

14.       – East African Development Bank (EADB)

            – Lake Victoria fisheries organization (LVFO)

            – Inter university council for East Africa (IUCEA)

                                                                                                                        2 x 1 mark

15.       – Civil and political rights

            – Social, economic and cultural rights

            – Solidarity rights

                                                                                                                        2 x 1 mark

                        SECTION B

17. (a)  – Man realized that some plants had more nutrients and tasted better than others

            – selected the superior ones

            – Man realized that some crops germinated along the river valleys

            – Weeding out other plants and leaving the desired ones

            – Clearing bushes

            – Digging/planting seeds

            – Harvesting

            – Storing for future use

                                                                                    1 point 1mark              1 x 3 = 3mks

    (b)    – land reclamation in order to create more productive land e.g. by irrigating, drainage e.t.c

            – Provision of extension services to farmers and by research.

            – Develop transport network so as to link farming areas with towns.

            – Availing more capital to farmers so that they can modernize their farms

            – Better storage facilities to be set up in order to minimize post harvest losses

            – Research to be carried out to develop disease/drought resistant varieties of crops

               and animals

– Environmental conservation measures to be started to check soil erosion

1 point 2 marks 2 x 6 = 12mks

 18.(a) – Provide reliable information not easily forgotten.

            – Information is stored for future reference

            – Information could be interpreted into different languages/can access many people

            – Message is accurate.

                                                                                                    1 point 1 mark 1x 3 = 3mks

     (b)   – Has promoted education through school programmes on radio and T.V.

            – Has resulted in a rapid exchange of culture which has enriched cultural practices

                 in many parts of the world

– Has led to expansion of international trade i.e business can be transacted from distant parts.

– Has made administration easy

– Has contributed to the ease and accuracy of weather forecasting

– Has made navigation of sea and in air safer

– Provided permanent means of storing information

                                                                                    1 point 2marks 2 x 6 = 12mks

19. (a)  – Sand storms

            – Harsh climate- very hot days and very cold nights

            – Loss of direction

            – Desert problems often attacked them/insecurity

            -Desert creature’s e.g. scorpions and poisonous snakes

            – Scarcity of water and food

            – Hostile desert tribes – intercommunity wars often disrupted their journeys

            – Communication barrier

                                                                                                            1 point 1mark 1 x 5 = 5mks

(b)        – Separation of families – some were captured and sold into slavery

            – Loss of life- some Africans died in the course of slave raiding while others died in the  Conjested baracoons as they awaited shipment to the Americas

– Great misery and anxiety among the members of the community – many families    were traumatized

– Fear and insecurity – the methods used to acquire slaves i.e. frequent slave raids

   subjected the people to great fear and insecurity

– Enemity – developed between the communities due to slave raids – rulers turned against   their subjects and sold then which created a lot of mistrust and instability among the   communities

– Change of roles- women often found themselves performing what were traditionally

   Accepted as male roles since man had already been sold into slavery

                                                                                                1 point 2 marks 2 x 5 = 10mks

20. (a)  – Search for raw materials for their industries

            – Search for fields to invest their surplus capital

            – Search for markets for their industrial goods

     (b)   – African economies were disrupted by the Europeans/led to suffering of Africans

            – Border conflicts in Africa- the present day boundaries were drawn by the Europeans to set   up their spheres of influence regardless of the existing boundaries and ethnic groups

            – Introduction of European administrative systems in the continent e.g indirect /direct rule by      the British and assimilation by the French

            – Introduction of foreign languages in the continent e.g. French in Francophone countries and    English in British former colonies

            – Splitting of communities e.g. Somali who are found in both Kenya and Somali land and   Maasai in Tanzania and Kenya

            – Fall of African Kingdoms – most Africans lost their independence as the Europeans  established their rule over them e.g. Asante and Dahomey in W. Africa

– Exploitation of the Africans- land alienation, forced labour and taxation

– Erosion of the African cultures – the introduction of western education, medicine and   language undermined the indigenous cultures

            – State formation in Africa after independence- during the struggle for independence, Africans created new states based on the new colonial territories set up after partition

            – International relations – Africans have continued to maintain closer ties with European

              countries through – trade, education and diplomatic relations.

           – Unfortunately this has created overdependence on Europe for financial and technical support.                                                                 6 points x 2 12mks

                                    SECTION C (30 MARKS)

21. (a) – Gave the right of declaring war on another Omanehene

            – Recognized the right of Asantehene to impose levies during national calamities

            – Attended the annual oldwira festival/paid allegiance to the Ansantehene

            – Honoured the dead

            – Settled disputes

            – Granted own subjects the right to appeal to the high court

                                                                                                1 point 1 mark 1 x 3 = 3mks

     (b)   – Buganda had a centralized system of government

            – The head of state and government was the Kabaka

            – The Kabaka was the supreme judge, commander in chief of the armed forces and the  ritual leader

-The capital of Buganda was at Mengo

– The Kabaka was assisted by the Katikiro (prime minister) Omulamwezi (chief Justice) and  Omuwanika (the Treasurer)

– The Lukiiko was the legislature of the kingdom. It formulated laws and advised the Kabaka

– The kingdom was divided into Sazas each under a Saza chief

– Sazas were further subdivided into Gombolobs each under Gombololo chief

                                                                                                Any 6 points x 2 = 12mks

22. (a) – The newly independent states did not want to join the power bloc rivalry between  U.S.A and U.S.S.R

            – The developing nations wanted to safeguard their independence/would be free to protect  their national interests

– The newly independent states wanted to establish their own distinct identity in the  world politics/wanted to exert influence in the international affairs

– N.A.M favoured the foreign policy of the states in getting maximum aid from both  blocs, for economic development

            – The newly formed nations wanted to avoid the cold war/were against the arms race by the   superpower which was seen as a threat to international peace

            – The newly formed nations needed co-operation among themselves to ensure peace/save

              the world from another world war.

                                                                        1 point well explained 2mks  3×1=3mks

  (b)      -Large size of membership (116)/the ideological coherence and organizational

              solidarity was not possible

– Did not have an army or permanent institutional frame work/machinery to help

   in conducting its activities effectively

  • Political instability among the member countries/states hence impending their participation e.g civil strife in DRC and Rwanda
  • Boundary disputes – member states had differences over territorial boundaries hence hampering cooperation in the movement
  • Dependency among NAM members – the harsh relations between the two ideological and military blocs created military economic and political dependency among NAM members/ they continued to maintain ties with their former colonial masters and could not keep/pursue the policy of neutrality/independence
  • Poor economies/failed to meet financial obligations
  • Conflict in policy – members national interests conflicted with the movements’ objectives
  • Differences among  the member states
  • Divided loyalty/ commitment-member states also belong to other organizations i.e A.U, U.N making it difficult for them to actively participate in the movement
  • Personality differences between the leaders of the member states e.g. rejection of fidel casto of cuba.
  • Break up of the Soviet union and the end of cold war – power bloc rivalry subsided making NAM to be destabilized.

                                                                        1point well explain 1mark 1 x 10 = 10mks

23. (a) – Elections for the House of representatives – held after every two years

            – Elections for the governors – held every four years

            – Elections for the Senate – held every six years

                                                                                                1point 1mark 1 x 3 = 3mks

   (b)     – Head of state- welcomes foreign dignitaries,  represent the state abroad, officiates at  national ceremonies

– Chief executive – ensures that policies and laws passed by congress are executed, appoints

   top officials, cabinet secretaries and agency directors

– Chief legislator – initiates bills

– Chief diplomatic – keeps the congress informed of international developments

– Commander –in – chief of the armed forces

– Head of party

– He /she is the national voice of the people

– He /she is the protector/advocate of peace i.e. intervenes in natural calamities

                                                                                                1 point 2 marks 2 x 6 = 12mks

Name……………………………………………………….      Index No…………………/…….

School………………………………………………………Date ………………………….…

Candidate’s Signature…………………………………….   

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

Time: 2 ½ Hours

JULY/AUGUST 2011

FORM FOUR CLUSTER EXAMINATION  2011

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper consists of THREE sections A, B and C.

Answer all the questions in section A, THREE questions from Section B and TWO questions  From Section C.

  • Answers to all questions MUST be written in the answer booklet provided

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

Answer ALL the questions in this section in the answer sheets provided

  1. Give one disadvantage of oral traditions as a source of information on History and

          Government of Kenya                                                                                            (1mk)

2.         Name two groups of Cushitic speakers in Kenya                                                       (2mks)

3.         State two factors which were considered while choosing the chairman of the council of 

             elders among the Nandi                                                                                            (2mks)

4.         Give two roles of medicine-men among the Akamba during the pre-colonial period in

Kenya                                                                                                                          (2mks)

5.         Identify one commodity that was imported from China to the Kenyan coast during the 

             Indian Ocean trade                                                                                                    (1mk)

6.         Identify one method of colonial administration applied by the British in Kenya      (1mks)

7.         Give two ways in which the construction of the Uganda Railway helped stop

            Slave trade in Kenya                                                                                                   (2mks)

8.         Identify any two groups that provided Education to Africans during the colonial period    (2mks)

9.         State two characteristics of the Independent churches and schools in Kenya during the

colonial period.                                                                                                           (2mks)

10.       Give the main contribution of Daniel Arap Moi in the health sector in Kenya                      (1mk)

11.       State two challenges the Harambee Philosophy has faced in Kenya since its inception in

Kenya                                                                                                                          (2mks)

12.       Give one way in which the institution of the presidency promotes National Unity  (1mk)

13.       Identify two disadvantages of a written constitution                                                            (2mks)

14.       Identify one class of human rights                                                                             (1mk)

15.       Name the body that was created to conduct elections following the disbanding of 

         Electoral             commission of Kenya in 2008                                                            (1mk)

16.       Name the political head of a town council in Kenya                                                  (1mk)

17.       What is the Main source of government revenue in Kenya                                        (1mk)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer any Three questions from this section in the answer sheets provided.

18.       a)         State five results of the migration of the Maasai into Kenya during the pre-

                       colonial Period                                                                                                 (5mks)

            b)         Describe the political organization of the Somali in Kenya during the pre-colonial

period                                                                                                  (10mks)

19.       a)         State three reasons why the Omani Arabs appointed local Arab families to control

                      the East African coast on their behalf after defeating the Portuguese             (3mks)

            b)         Explain the results of the development of plantation agriculture on the East  

                        African coast   by Seyyid Said                                                            (12mks)

20.       a)         State five benefits of the construction of the Uganda railway to the colonial

government in Kenya                                                                                      (5mks)

            b)         Outline the efforts made to improve health services in Kenya during the colonial

period                                                                                                  (10mks)

21.       a)         Give five methods used by the African Nationalists in Kenya in their struggle for

                        Independence                                                                                                 (5mks)

            b)         Explain any five results of Mau Mau uprising in Kenya                    (10mks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer sheets provided.

22.       a)         Identify three aspects of democracy                                                              (3mks)

            b)         Outline six electoral malpractices that are a threat to democracy in Kenya(12mks)

23.       a)         Give any three roles of armed forces in Kenya                                              (3mks)

            b)         What challenges does the provincial administration face in Kenya   (12mks)

24.       a)         Identify three steps in the law making process that take place outside parliament    (3mks)

            b)         Explain how parliament check the powers of other organs of the government in

End  

Kenya                                                                                                  (12mks)

NAME……………………………..………………..DATE   …………………………………

INDEX NO.   …………….……….……..…..…

 CANDIDATE’S SIGNATURE    …………..…………..

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2

TIME: 2 ½ HOURS

JULY/AUGUST 2011

FORM FOUR CLUSTER EXAMINATION  2011

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2

TIME: 2 ½ HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

This paper consists of three sections A, B and C

Answer ALL the questions in section A three questions from section B and two questions from

section C.

Answers to all questions MUST be written in the answer booklet provided

      SECTION A (25 MARKS)

      Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. State two reasons why the study of government is important                             (2 marks)
  2. Define the term ‘pre-history’                                                                                (1 mark)
  3. Name two economic activities of man in the pre-historic period                         (2 marks)
  4. Give two examples of tools made by middle stone age man                               (2 marks)
  5. Identify two factors that forced early man to change from hunting and gathering to food production                                                                                                       (2 marks)
  6. Name two early centres of agriculture in the world.                                            (2 marks)
  7. Name the type of writing invented by the early world.                                       (2 marks)
  8. Give two advantages of money system in trade                                                   (2 marks)
  9. State two ways in which the industrial revolution in Europe promoted colonialism (2 marks)
  10. What was the most important symbol of unity among the Asante?                     (1 mark)
  11. Name two chartered companies which were used to administer European colonial possessions in Africa.                                                                                      (2 marks)
  12. State two conditions that one had to fulfill to become assimilated to French West Africa.        (2 marks)
  13. State  one way through which the European maintained peace among themselves during the partition of Africa                                                                                                      (1 mark)
  14. Apart from Nigeria and Ghana, name other West African country which was ruled by Britain (1 mark)
  15. What is the main function of the security council of the UNO?                         (1 mark)
  16. Mention one method used by the international community to hasten independence in South Africa.                                                                                                         (1 mark)

      SECTION B (45 MARKS)

      Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. a)   State three roles played by the Tuaregs in the Trans-Saharan trade. (3 marks)

      b)   Explain six effects of the Trans-Saharan trade                                               (12 marks)

  1. a)   Identify three ways in which trade contributed to the growth of Kingdoms in Africa 

      in the 19th C.                                                                                                   (3 marks)

      b)   Explain six factors that led to the rise and growth of the Buganda Kingdom.(12 marks) 

  1. a)   Give five reasons why many developing countries have lagged behind in industrialization.                                                                                                      (5 marks)

      b)   Explain five effects of the industrial Revolution in Europe.                          (10 marks)

  • a)   Name three systems of colonial administration used by European powers in Africa.           (3 marks)
    • Discuss the difference between the British and French forms of administration in Africa.  (12 marks)

      SECTION C (30 MARKS)

      Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

  • a)   State three reasons why the United States of America (USA) was reluctant to join the

      First World War during the initial stages.                                                       (3 marks)

     b)   Explain six results of the first world war                                                        (12 marks)      

  • a)   State three objectives of the Non –aligned movement                                  (3 marks)

      b)   Explain six factors that undermined the activities of Non-aligned movement(12 marks)

  • a)   Outline three functions of the East African community                                (3 marks)

      b)   Explain six problems which the East African Community faced upto 1977  (12 marks)

                JULY/AUGUST 2011

FORM FOUR CLUSTER EXAMINATION  2011

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

311/1

HISTORY

PAPER 1

MARKING SCHEME.

1.         Give one disadvantage of oral traditions as a source of information on History and Government of Kenya                                                                                                 (1mk)

            –           The stories may be exaggerated. It is hard to tell  what is real and what is imagined

            –           Some information may be forgotten or omitted since human memory is not precise

            –           The stories may be changed for various reasons.

            –           It does not provide dates or sequence of events

            –           Its expensive as one has to pay accommodation, lunch transport and of informant.

            –           It is time consuming, interviewing people

2.         Name two groups of Cushitic speakers in Kenya                                                  (2mks)

–           The Eastern Cushites                                                                          2 x 1 = 2mks

            –           The Southern Cushites

3.         State two factors which were considered while choosing the chairman of the council of elders             among the Nandi                                                                               (2mks)

–           His generosity / His Wealth

            –           His wise judgment / wisdom

            –           His oratory skills                                                                                 2 x 1 = 2mks

4.         Give two roles of medicinemen among the Akamba during the pre-colonial period in

Kenya                                                                                                                        (2mks)

–           Treatment of various ailments

            –           Offerings sacrifices

            –           Praying to God and ancestral spirits.                                                  2 x 1 = 2mks

5.         Identify one commodity that was imported from China to the Kenyan coast during the Indian Ocean trade                                                                                       (1mk)

–           Porcelain bowls

            –           Daggers

            –           Swords

            –           Potter

            –           Silk

            –           Beads

            –           Glass ware                                                                                           1 x 1 = 1mk

6.         Identify one method of colonial administration applied by the British in Kenya            (2mks)

–           Direct in Kenya

            –           Indirect rule

7.         Give two ways in which the construction of the Kenya Uganda Railway helped stop

            Slave trade in Kenya                                                                                                 (2mks)

–           Slave porters were no longer needed since the railway would ferry goods to and

from the coast.                                                                                                1 x 1 = 1mk

  • It enabled the quick movement of troops into the interior to stamp out the trade
  • It helped promote other profitable sources of income which acted as an alternative to slavery and slave trade.

8.         Identify any two groups that provided Education to Africans during the colonial period(2mks)

–           The missionaries                                                                                  2 x 1 = 2mks  

  • The colonial government
  • The Asians
  • The African themselves                                                                      2 x 1 = 2mks

9.         State two characteristics of the Independent churches and schools in Kenya during the colonial period.                                                                                                            (2mks)

–           They incorporated African cultural values

  • They were led by Africans
  • Worked closely with African political association
  • Wire against the westernizing influence of the missionaries
  • They valued Christianity and western education.                              2 x 1 = 2mks

10.       Give the main contribution of Daniel Arap Moi in the health sector in Kenya               (1mk)

–           The buildings of Nyayo wards across the country.

11.       State two challenges the Harambee Philosophy has faced in Kenya since its inception in Kenya                                                                                                                     (2mks)

–           Has been abused to buy votes.                                                           1 x 1 = 1mk

  • Public servants and politicians have had to engage in corruption to get money to donate in Harambee
  • Stage show for the have’s and have notes.
  • Sometimes money raised has not been used for the intended purposes.2 x 1 = 2mks

12.       Give one way in which the institution of the presidency promotes National Unity         (1mk)

–           The President as head of state and government unites all Kenyas.

  • All Kenyans look upto one President for protection.                         1 x 1 = 1mk

13.       Identify two disadvantages of a written constitution                                             (2mks)

–           It is not easy to amend

            –           It tends to give judiciary to much power

            –           They are rarely read and understood by ordinary citizens

            –           The procedure for amending the constitution is slow and costly.

            –           They sometimes invite disputes and disagreement in interpretation. 2 x 1 = 2mks

14.       Identify one class of human rights                                                                           (1mk)

–           Classical human rights / political civil rights

            –           Social Humans rights / social / economic

            –           Third generation Human rights / solidarity rights                   1 x 1 = 1mk

15.       Name the body that was created to conduct elections following the disbanding of

        Electoral             commission of Kenya in 2008                                                           (1mk)

–           Interim independent electoral commission(IIEC)                              1 x 1 = 1mk

16.       Name the political head of a town council in Kenya                                              (1mk)

–           Chairman / chair person .                                                                    1 x 1 = 1mk

17.       What is the Main source of government revenue in Kenya                                  (1mk)

–           Taxes                                                                                                   1 x 1 = 1mk

18        a) State five results of the migration of the Maasai into Kenya during the pre-

           colonial Period                                                                                                            (5mks)

            –            Intermarriages occurred / took place between the Maasai and

neighbouring communities.    

  • Expansion of economic activities of trade, pastoralism
  • There was cultural interraction’
  • There was increased conflict among communities
  • Leadership developed where they settled e.g Laibon
  • Population increased.                                                                          5 x 1 = 5mks

b)         Describe the political organization of the Somali in Kenya during the pre-

          colonial period                                                                                     (10mks)

            The basic political unit was the clan

  • The clan was headed by council of elders
  • The council of elders maintained law and order and settled disputes
  • They practiced the age – set system
  • They existed warriors whose main duty was to protect the community from external attack
  • They also had sheiks / sultans as leaders expecially after adopting Islam.     5 x 2 = 10mks

19.       a)         State three reasons why the Omani Arabs appointed local Arab families to

control the East African coast on their behalf after defeating the Portuguese   (3mks)

–           They were civil wars in Oman

  • They feared rebellion by coastal towns
  • The Persians threatened to conquer Oman                                         3 x 1 = 3mks

b)         Explain the results of the development of plantation agriculture on the East African coast by Seyyid Said                                                    (12mks)

–           It led to increased slave trade for slave labour

  • Introduction of new crops such as cloves, coconut and maize
  • Development of towns like Malindi, pemba
  • Promoted trade
  • Growth of wealthy merchants among the Arabs and Swahili
  • It led to depopulation in the interior as slaves were taken to work in farms at the coast’
  • The population of foreigners from Oman increased at the coast
  • Slaves were expected to poor working condition and long hours of work.6 x 2 = 12mks

20.       a)         State five benefits of the construction of the Uganda railway to the colonial

government in Kenya                                                                                   (5mks)

            –           It enabled the British to administer the colony more effectively

  • The railway promoted the exploitation of natural resources of the colony.
  • It promoted the growth of trade.
  • It was a major source of revenue for the colonial government
  • It enhanced the development of other forms of transport and communication.5 x1 = 5mks

b)         Outline the efforts made to improve health services in Kenya during the

         colonial period                                                                                      (10mks)

            Various missionary groups established medical facilities in the country

–           The missionaries started medical training centres after 1 st world war e.g Alliance medical college

  • The government provided financial support to ensure that Europeans were protected from typhoid, Malaria, dysentery.
  • Africans were taught hygiene through public baraza.
  • Vaccines were introduced to prevent diseases
  • After 1945 development and Research Authority gave £47 000 for health care and improvement of health services
  • 1951 the King George hospital began to train female nurses.
  • The government established public health centres and hospitals in different parts of the country.                                                                                       5 x 2 = 10mks

21.       a)         Give five methods used by the African Nationalists in Kenya in their struggle

                         for      Independence                                                                                                (5mks)

            –           Advocacy through the international bodies such as UNO, AU, common wealth,

            –           Presented there grievances to the colonial secretary e.g in 1931 .Kenyatta went to

                             London

            –           Armed struggle by Mau Mau.

  • Strikes and boycotts, sit ins
  • Demonstration / peaceful demonstrations / protests
  • Use of trade unions to agitate for African rights
  • Public rallies
  • Mass media
  • Formation of political parties – KAU,KANU.
  • Composed songs
  • Constitutional negotiations
  • e.g Lyttleton constitution, the Lennox Boyd constitution. x 1 = 5mks

b)         Explain any five results of Mau Mau uprising in Kenya                    (10mks)

–           Many Africans were arrested and detained.

  • The government restricted African political parties e.g KAU was banned in 1953.
  • Led to establishment of emergency villages created to alienate civil society  from the fighters
  • Led to declaration of state of emergency in Kenya in 1952 with so many restrictions
  • It breds bitterness among the Gikuyu members since they were divided between the government loyalties and Mau Mau.
  • Kenyan resources were depleted by war and economic activities like Agriculture, trade and industries disrupted
  • Attracted attention of British and international community
  • Speeded up the march to independence
  • The power and influence of settlers were reduced since it was the cause of African bitterness
  • Kipande system was modified to pure identity card demands
  • Land reforms measures such  as land consolidation were adopted
  • Political reforms were initiated e.g lift on ban against political parties.         5 x 2 = 5mks

SECTION C ( 30MARKS)

22.       a)         Identify three aspect of democracy                                                             (3mks)

            –           Political aspect – process of electing leaders and expressing dislikes through

                        them.

  • Social aspect – a means through which people are free to express opinions and associate with others
  • Economic aspect – Promote equal opportunities to all citizens.         3 x 1 = 3mks

b)         Outline six electoral malpractices that are a threat to democracy in Kenya        (12mks)

–           Harassment of voters by rival groups / intimidation of voters.

  • Partisan election officials
  • Bribery of voters
  • Disruption of polling exercises
  • Uses of witch craft and forced illegal oathing
  • Rigging by election officials
  • Buying of voter cards
  • Double registration by voters
  • Negative propaganda against opponent e.g circulating defamatory, leaflets
  • Instigation of violence / insecurity.                                                     6 x 2 = 12mks

23.       a)         Give any three roles of armed forces in Kenya                                          (3mks)

            –           Defend the country in event  of an external attack

  • Assist the police when they are overwhelmed
  • Participate in nation building e.g road, bridge construction
  • They entertain the public during National days
  • They participate in peace keeping missions abroad under the UN supervision.
  • Their presence is a deterent measure against would be external attackers
  • The Kenya Navy ensures that no illegal landings and fishing take place in Kenyan waters.                                                                                                 3 x 1 = 3mks

b)         What challenges does the provincial administration face in Kenya                     (12mks)

–           Imbalance in population, some regions are very densely populated causing land lessness and insecurity whereas others are sparsely, populated refunding developments efforts.

–           Insecurity e.g land clashes, cattle rustling, increased crime.

–           Natural disasters e.g floods, drought, leading to famine.

–           Inadequate infrastructure such as roads, electricity, water, health centres etc.

–           Inadequate funds to offer services effectively

–           Corruption by some officials

–           Illiteracy and poverty among the people of Kenya

–           Retrogressive customes and traditions e.g child marriages, F.G.M etc

–           Tribalism and Ethnic tendencies among officials.

–           Antisocial activities e.g drag peddling, changaa brewing etc

–           Inadequate facilities for transport and communication e/g Motor vehicle, Telephone, fax .                                                                         6 x 2 = 12mks

24.       a)         Identify three steps in the law making process that take place outside

                             Parliament{3mks)

–           The drafting of a bill

            –           Presidential assent

            –           Publishing of the Bill in the Kenya Gazettee                                     3 x 1 = 3mks

            b)         Explain how parliament chock the powers of other organs of the government

                         in Kenya                                                                                            (12mks)

–           It is empowered to control revenue collection and government expenditure

            –           Parliament ensures that government money is spent property

            –           It reviews the constitution

            –           It can pass a vote of no confidence in the government of the day

–           It checks on the possible abuse of power be executive and thus promote good governance and accountability

–           Parliament is the supreme law making organ , in the country, once it make law, they are binding to every body.                                         6 x 2 = 12mks

JULY/AUGUST 2011

FORM FOUR CLUSTER EXAMINATION  2011

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

311/2

HISTORY & GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

  1. State two reasons why the study of government is important                                                        2 marks
    1. It helps us understand how laws are made.
    1. Helps us understand the organs of the state.
    1. Help us understand how government raises and spends revenue.
    1. Helps us compare our government system with other systems in other countries.(any 2×1=2mks)    
  2. Define the term ‘pre-history’                     1 mark 

      The study of mans history before written records were used. Study of man’s distant past.

      (1mark)

  • Name two economic activities of man in the pre-historic period                           (2marks)
    • Hunting
    • Gathering
    • Fishing (2×1=2marks)
  • Give two examples of tools made by middle stone age man                                             (2marks)
    • Choppers
    • Daggers
    • Scrapers
    • Tang (2×1=2marks )
  • Identify two fact ors that forced early man to change from hunting and gathering to food production.                                                                                                                                (2marks)
    • Increased population which could not be provided with adequate food by the environment  
    • Climatic changes like drought that threatened life of animals and plants.
    • Competition for food among human beings and between human beings and animals.   

      (2pts x 1= 2marks) 

  • Name two early centres of agriculture in the world (2marks)
    • Mesopotamia
    • Egypt – Nile valley
    • Indus valley
    • Ganges valley in India (2×1 = 2marks)
  • What was the types of writing invested by the early Egyptians.     (1mark)

–     Hieroglyphics

  • Give two advantages of money system in trade
    • It is not bulky
    • Money is a store of value or wealth
    • It is easily divisible into smaller units.
    • It is a measure of value for goods and services. (2pts x 1 = 2marks)
  • State two ways in which the industrial revolution in Europe promoted colonialism (2 marks
    • Colonies acted as sources of raw materials for industries.
    • Colonies acted as markets for the manufactured goods.
    • Colonies acted as outlets where they could invest surplus capital.

      (2×1 = 2marks)

  1. What was the most important symbol of unity among the Asante?                       (1mark) 

–     The Golden stool                                                                                                   (1mark)

  1. Name two chartered companies which were used to administer European colonial possessions in Africa.                                                                                                            (2marks)
    1. The Royal Niger company
    1. The British South African Company
    1. The Germany East African Company
    1. The Imperial British East African company 
  2. State two conditions that one had to fulfill to become assimilated to French West Africa (2marks)
    1. Ability to speak French
    1. Literacy in French – able to read and write
    1. Service in the French army / government.
    1. One had to be monogamous
    1. Had to be converted to Christianity. (2pts x 1 = 2marks)    
  3. State one way through which the European maintained peace among themselves during the partition of African (1marks)
    1. By signing treaties among themselves
    1. By organizing the Berlin Conference to lay down the guiding principles of partition.
  4. Apart from Nigeria and Ghana, name one other West African country which was ruled by Britain (1mark)
    1. Gambia
    1. Sierra Leone                                  (1×1 = 1mark)
  5. What is the main function of the security council of the UNO                (1mark)

      To maintain international peace and security                                                         (1mark)

  1. Mention one method used by the International Community to hasten independence in South Africa.                                                                                                        (1mark)
    1. Economic sanctions
    1. Social sanctions e.g.. banned from international games                                         (1×1= 1mark)

      SECTION B (45 MARKS)

  1. a)   State three roles played by the Tuaregs in the Trans-Saharan trade           (3marks)
    1. They acted as guides.
    1. They provided security to traders.
    1. They acted as interpreters.
    1. They maintained the oasis.
    1. Provided food and accommodation to traders.

                                                                                                                  3pts x 1 = 3mks)  

b)  Explain six effects of the Trans-Saharan trade                                             12 marks

  • A class of wealthy Arabs and African traders came up.
    • It led to the spread of Islamic religion
    • Trading centres became big urban centres –led to the growth of town e.g. Gao, Kano, Saleh, Timbukta.
    • Transport facilities were improved.
    • Led to the settlement by the Arabs and the Swahili traders in West Africa.
    • Led to intermarriages between the Arabs and the Africans.
    • New industries were introduced like leather and textile industries.
    • It increased warfare
    • It introduced new cultural value sin W. Africa e.g. people adapted New styles of dressing and eating habits.
    • Led to the introduction of empires e.g. Mali, Sonhai and Ghana.
    • Led to the depopulation of W. Africa through slave trade.
    • Opened W. African to the outside world.                                (6pts x 2 = 12 marks)
  1. a)   Identify three ways in which trade contributed to the growth of kingdoms in Africa in the

      19th C (3mks)

  • Wealth from trade boosted the growth of kingdoms
    • Kings imposed takes and other levies on the traders who passed through their territories.
    • Kings acquired arms and ammunition from trade that they used to protector and expand their frontiers.
    • Kings used the trade items e.g. clothes as gifts to win the loyalty of their subject chiefs.

            (3pts x 1 = 3 marks)

      b)   Explain six factors that led to the rise and growth of the Buganda Kingdom (12marks)

  • The fall of the Bunyoro – Kitara kingdom her traditional enemy.
  • The Buganda had able Kabakas
  • The idea geographical location with adequate rainfall ad fertile soils favoured agriculture.
  • The small size of the kingdom enabled it to hold together.
  • They had a centralized system of government under the Kabaka that ensure unity.
  • Their participation in the long distance trade with the Arabs and Waswahili boosted growth. They acquired firearms through trade.
  • They had a strong army which enabled them to conquer the weaker neighbouring states such as Buddu and Busonga.
  • Baganda traditions boosted growth women worked in the farms, while men took part in politics and wars.
  • She got wealth from the kingdoms she had conquered which were rich in ivory, slaves and iron ore.

      (any 6pts x 2= 12marks)

  1. a)   Give five reasons why many developing countries have lagged behind in industrialization
    1. Long periods of colonization.
    1. Poor transport and communication.
    1. Lack of capital.
    1. Low literacy level.
    1. Stiff competition from the industrialized nations.
    1. Poverty leading to small domestic matters.
    1. Political instability.
    1. Poor leadership and corruption.
    1. Brain drain.                                                      (5 x 1 = 5mrks)

      b)   Explain five effects of industrial revolution in Europe:

  1. Led to rural urban migration.
  2. Lead to creation of social groups urban to urban migration.
  3. Led to population increase in towns hence unemployment and congestion.
  4. Led to population growth.
  5. Led to improved medical services.
  6. Led to collapse of cortege industries.
  7. Created poor working conditions in the industries.
  8. Led to child and women labour.                      Any 5pts x 2 = 10mrk)
  • a)   Name three systems of colonial administration used by European powers in Africa.
    • Indirect rule
    • Direct rule
    • Assimilation
    • Associations                                                    (3 x 1 = 3mrks)

      b)   Discuss the differences between the British and French form of administration

  1. The British appointed traditional leaders as chiefs whereas the French had picked individualist become chiefs.
  2. The French administration used militia offices whereas the British used a mixture of amateurs and professionals.
  3. British rule was varied as both direct rules were applied. The French had a uniform policy of assimilation but only changed to association when assimilation failed.
  4. Indirect rule preserved Africans cultures while assimilation eroded them.
  5. Africans in French colonies became French citizens with full rights. The colonies remained subjects.
  6. British save the local leaders a lot of power, while the French worked to undermine chieftaincies.
  7. Laws in French colonies were legislated in France but in British colonies they were made by the respective.   
  8. British colonies were administered separately by a governor accountable in Britain. The French colonies were governed as a federation and regarded as oversea provinces or departments of France.
  9. The French colonies elected their representatives to the chamber of deputies in France while British colonies had Le.g.co and were not represented in the House of Commons.                  6pts x 2 = 12mrks

SECTION C

  • a)  State three reasons why the United State of America (USA) was reluctant to join the WW1

      during the initial stages.                                                                                

  1. Desire to abide by the term of the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 which forbid USA from interfering with European affairs.
    1. Fear of revolt by her citizens of Germany origin.
    1. Fear of outbreak of civil war been American of German decent and those of other European nationalists.
    1. The war had not interfered with the USA’s interest until 1916.                                   3 x 1 x= 3mrks

      b)   Explain six results of the First World War.

  1. Many people were killed and many others wounded.
  2. Outbreak of disease e.g. the Spanish influenza caused tens of thousands of deaths.
  3. A lot of money was spent on the war. Nations spend a lot to buy guns, food, ammunitions and other war materials.
  4. International trade came to a standstill and this brought economic disaster especially to Europe.
  5. The world experienced vandalism and wanton destructions of property e,g means of transport and communications were destroyed.
  6. Africans became politically aware. The Africans soldiers who participated in the war overcame the myth of European superiority.
  7. German was made to pay for the damages as it was declared solely responsible.
  8. German lost Alsace and Lorraine to France.
  9. Led to the creation of new nations in Europe e.g. Hungary and Yugoslavia.
  10. USA emerged as the leading world power.
  11. Germany lost all her overseers territories.
  12. Germany lost all her overseas territories (colonies) which were declared mandated territories placed under the supervision of League of Nations.  
  13. Led to the formation of n international organization the League of Nations in 1919 to check any other outbreak of war in future.
  14. It laid the foundation for the WW2. German felt that they were falsely accused of being solely responsible.
  15. Led to the rise of dictators like Benito Mussolini in Italy and Adolf Hitler in Germany.

      (Any 6pts x 2= 12mrks)

  • a)  State three objectives of the non-aligned movement.                                    (3mrks)
    • To safeguard the sovereignty of member states.
    • To fight for the decolonization of the third world countries.
    • To discourage military alliance promoted by the super powers.
    • To work for the disarmament of the superpowers.
    • To promote active participation in the UNO programme.
    • To promote economic independence of member counties.
    • To promote economic independence of member countries.
    • To fight racism in the world.       

      b)   Explain six factors that undermined the activities of non-aligned movement. (12mrks)

  1. Political instability experienced by member states has undermined their contribution to the movement. 
    1. Economic ties between the third world countries and their political masters has made it difficult for the member states to pursue an independent live.  
    1. Border disputes between neighbouring members have weakened their cooperation e.g. between Morocco and Algeria.
    1. Economic backwardness of some of the members has made it difficult for them to meet their obligations in the movement.
    1. Ideological differences between member states has undermined their cooperation whereas some countries are inclined towards\ the west and others towards the East.
    1. Personality differences between leaders of members states was undermined their efforts to discuss issues successfully.
    1. Membership to other organizations such as OAU. Common wealth etc has made it difficult for some sates to participate actively in the affairs of the movement.
    1. Breakup of the soviet union has destabilized the movement.
    1. Nationalism – National interest have conflicted with the objectives of the movement.

            (6 pts x 2 = 12 marks)

  • a)   Outline three functions of the East African community.      
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •                               (3marks)
    • To promote trade among the three East African countries.
    • To provide common services such as railways, harbours, posts and telecommunication.
    • To provide for three trade of goods produced within East Africa.
    • To provide a wider and more secure market for the foods produced in the re.g.ion.
    • To facilitate free movement of people
    • To facilitate and strengthen ties and understanding between the members states.
    • To bring economic balance between the states.
    • Establish similar custom tariffs and duties to non-member states.                   (any 3pts x 1 = 3 marks)

      b)   Explain six problems which the East African community faced upto 1977 (12 marks)

  1. Ideological difference where Tanzania used socialistic ideology while Kenya and Uganda used mixed capitalists economy.
  2. Political upheavals in Uganda undermined the performance of the community.
  3. Failure by member countries to remit funds stalled joint ventures.
  4. Unfair distribution of services e.g.. Kenya was blamed for taking much from the community.
  5. Border disputes e.g. between Kenya and Tanzania and Kenya and Uganda strained relationships.
  6. Lack of a common currency discouraged inter-state transaction of goods.
  7. Nationalism and sovereignty of the states whereby state interests came first and regional interests were relegated to second place.
  8. Lack of political goodwill among the three leaders.
  9. Personality difference e.g.. between Julius Nyerere of Tanzania and Idi Amin of Uganda made it difficult to convene meetings.                                                                   (any 6 pts x 2= 12 marks)

Bonus

Revision kits

2010 mocks

Name…………………………………………………Index No……………………………..

School……………………………………………… Candidate’s sign…………………….

Date………………………………….                                                                                  

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

Paper 1

July/August 2010

2 ½ hours

NANDI CENTRAL DISTRICT JOINT EVALUATION TEST – 2010

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

Paper 1

July/August 2010

2 ½ hours

Instructions to candidates.

  1. This paper consists of THREE sections: A, B and C
  2. Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C.
  3. Answers to all questions must be written in the answer booklet provided.

SECTION A ( 25 Marks)

            Answer all the questions from this section.

1.         Give two factors that contributed to the migration of the Somali.                                        (2mks)

2.         Which among the Luo migratory groups regard their first settlement area in Sigoma.          (1mk)

3.         Name the existing written documentary before the 19th centaury that possessed the first map of Africa.                                                                                                                                        (1mk)

4.         Mention any two European powers who rivailed the Portuguese control of the east African coast.                                                                                                                                                             (2mks)

5.         Identify any of the three main routes that linked the east African coast and the interior.     (1mk)

6.         Give two elements of a good citizen of Kenya.                                                                     (2mks)

7.         Give any three economic rights of a citizen in Kenya.                                                           (3mks)

8.        Mention any three bodies that were either created or granted more powers by the independence             constitution.                                                                                                                            (3mks)

9.         State two levels of conflicts.                                                                                                  (2mks)

10.       What were the terms of the 1911 maasai agreement.                                                             (1mk)

11.       Give the main reason that led to the establishment of District Advisory committees during            colonial administration.                                                                                                            (1mk)

12.       Name the political organization that was later renamed the east African association.           (1mk)

13.       Mention two immediate achievements of the coast African association.                               (2mks)

14.       Which title is bestowed on an election official who is in charge of elections in a constituency?                                                                                                                                                                  (1mk)

15.       Who are usually referred to as members of the “Disciplined service”.                                   (1mk)

16.         What was the main objective of GEMA in the “Change the constitution” campaign in 1975. (1mk)

17.       Name the local authority charged with administering rural areas in Kenya.                          (1mk)

            Section b (30mks)

            Answer any two question from this section.

18.       (a) State the significance of circumcision to a male child in the Ameru community. (5mks)

            (b) Describe the political organization of the Borana during the pre-colonial period.            (10mks)

19.       (a) Mention three factors that led to the increased slave trade along the east African coast during the 17th century.                                                                                                                       (3mks)

            (b) Explain the effects the trade in slaves had on the Africans.                                             (12mks)

20.       (a) Why did Nabongo mumia of the wanga collaborated with the British during colonial period.                                                                                                                                                  (7mks)

            (b) Explain how the wanga collaboration with the british benefited them.                          (8mks)

21.       (a) What enabled the mau mau to have a protracted war against the british.                                    (5mks)

            (b) State the political contributions of Oginga Odinga to the struggle for independence in kenya.                                                                                                                                                  (10mks)

            Section c (30mks).

            Answer any two questions from this section.

22.       (a) State any five merits of democracy.                                                                                  (5mks)

            (b) Clearly explain the limitations of democracy.                                                                   (10mks)

23.       (a) Why are elections carried out in Kenya.                                                                            (5mks)

            (b) Describe the functions of the civil service.                                                                       (10mks)

24.       (a) State five functions of the attorney general.                                                                     (5mks)

            (b) Explain why the government of Kenya prepares the national budget every year.            (10mks)

Name…………………………………………………Index No……………………………..

School……………………………………     Candidate’s sign……………………. Date………………………………….                                              

NANDI CENTRAL DISTRICT JOINT EVALUATION TEST – 2010

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

Paper 2

July/August 2010

2 ½ hours

Instructions to candidates.

  1. This paper consists of THREE sections: A, B and C
  2. Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C.
  3. Answers to all questions must be written in the answer booklet provided.

SECTION A ( 25 Marks)

Answer all the questions from this section.

1.         Give two contributions of archeology to the study of History.                                             (2mks)

2.         Name two main cash crops that were grown in North America during the agrarian revolution.                                                                                                                                                                   (2mks)

3.         Identify the greatest contribution of Robert Koch in the field of science.                            (1mk)

4.         State two advantages of cinemas.                                                                                          (2mks)

5.         Give two results of space explanation.                                                                                   (2mks)

6.         Give two reasons why coal was used as the main source of industrial power in Britain during the industrial revolution.                                                                                                                   (2mks)

7.         Give two political challenges in Tanzania since independence.                                             (2mk)

8.         Mention two reforms made by Mobutu Sese Seko in an attempt to stabilize the democratic           republic of Congo since independence.                                                                            (2mks)

9.         State the main factor contributed to the development of Johannesburg city.                                    (1mk)

10.       What was the main cause of the failure of the mwanga revolt of 1897 against the british.  (1mk)

11.       Give two functions of the Kabaka of Buganda.                                                                    (2mks)

12.       Identify the main aim of the Berlin conference between 1884 and 1885.                             (1mk)

13.       Why did Southern Rhodesia refuse to merge with South Africa in 1923.                             (1mk)

14.       State the immediate cause of the 2nd world war.                                                                    (1mk)

15.       State two privilege which members of the British parliament enjoy.                                     (1mk)

16.       Identify the main factor that led to the end of the cold war.                                                 (1mk)

17.       Give one reason why the Electoral College is regarded as the heart of U.S.A electoral process.                                                                                                                                                                  (1mk)

Section b 45 marks.

Answer any three questions from this section.

18.       (a) What three factors led to the development of religious beliefs in societies.        (5mks)

            (b) Describe five characteristics of Homo erectus.                                                                 (10mks)

19.      (a) Identify five factors which promoted plantation farming in Europe during the Agrarian  revolution.                                                                                                                       (5mks)

            (b) Explain the similarities between early agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt.                (10mks)

20.       (a) Give three advantages of motorcycles as a modern means of transport.                          (3mks)

            (b) Explain six effects of the modern terms of transport.                                                       (12mks)

21.       (a) Give three functions of the buganda traditional parliament.                                           (3mks)

            (b) Explain the political organization of the mwene mutapa kingdom during the pre-colonial         period.                                                                                                                                     (12mks)

Section c 30 marks

Answer any two questions from this section.

22.       (a) How did the British sea blockade of 1916 benefit the Allied powers in the first world war.                                                                                                                                                                  (5mks)

            (b) Explain why the treaty of Versailles was a threat to peace.                                              (10mks)

23.       (a) Give five aims of the organization of African unity (OAU).                                            (5mks)

            (b) Explain the challenges of the OAU since its inception.                                                    (10mks)

24.       (a) What are the features of state government in the united states of America.                   (5mks)

            (b) Explain five functions of the federal government in the United States of America.       (10mks)

Nandi central joint evaluation test – 2010

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

Paper 1

Marking scheme.

1.         Oromo attacks

            Search for pastures      2×1 = 2mk

2.         Joka owiny                  1×1 = 1mk

3.         Geography                  1×1 = 1mk

4.         French

            British

            Dutch.                         2×1 = 2mks

5.         Mombasa – Mijikenda – Taita taveta – Kilimanjaro.

            Mombasa – Mijikenda – Taita Taveta – Mt. Kenya.

            Kilwa – yao – cewa.

            Bagamoyo – Tabora – Ujiji – Zaire     1×1 = 1mk

6.         – Participating in development projects.

            – Maintaining high moral standards

            – Obey the law.

            – Being patriotic.

            – reporting law breakers.

            – respecting rights and freedom of others

            – participating in the democratic process        2×1 = 2mks

7.         – right to own property

            – right to work or access employment

            – right to form or join trade unions with others to ensure fair working conditions

            – right to enjoy national resources equitably. 3×1 = 3mks

8.         – The Judicial service commission.

            – The public service commission.

            – The electoral commission of Kenya.             3mks

9.         – Individual vs Individual

            – Individual vs state

            – Group vs state

            – state vs state 2×1 = 2mks

10.       The maasai were shifted from laikipia and pushed to southern Ngong reserve.        1×1 = 1mk

11.       To cater for European interests such as roads, electrification and schools in different areas of the colony.                        1×1 = 1mk

12.       The young kikuyu association.            1×1 = 1mk

13.       – The elevation of the shimo la tewa school.

            – Appointments of Ronald Ngala into the Legco. 2×1 = 2mks

14.       Returning officer.       1×1 = 1mk

15.       Armed forces. 1×1 = 1mk

16.       To prevent ex-president moi from succeeding founding father Jomo kenyatta as next president of             kenya.  1 x 1 = 1mk

17.       County councils.         1×1 = 1mk

SECTION B

18.       (a) Significance of circumcision

  • It was meant to ensure upright behaviour.
  • Instill courage in a person.
  • Enhance devotion of a person to the community.
  • Make one responsible to himself
  • Make one appreciate the successs of others.
  • Make one trustworthy enough to be entrusted with the secrets of the community. 1×5 = 5mks

(b) Political organization of the Borana during the pre-colonial period.

  • The organization was based on the kinship system/moleties
  • There were two large moleties the Sabbo and the gona.
  • Each molety was headed by a leader whose title was Kallu
  • The kallu’s position was hereditary.
  • His duties were to solve or judging major disputes as well as being a sacred ritual leader in celemonies.
  • Moleties were further divided into sub moleties.
  • these sub moleties were also further divided into clans made up of related members through common descent.
  • In each clan there were councils of elders selected from the grades i.e 3 to 11 Gamme Gugundo to Gada majji.
  • These had the task of settling disputes, maintaining law and order as well as organizing territorial defence.
  • The kallu together with the council were responsible for electing gada leaders when it prepared to enter a new gada grade.
  • Then age set system (Hariyya) was very complex and helped provide a military base for the society.
  • The age set and gada grades were different. Each grade lasted eight years and these were eleven while age set members were of the same age, gada class  members varied in age.
  • There was the age set council that was charged with the responsibility of recruiting worriors.
  • Members of the gada classes also formed the gada council that made decisions concerning their classes hence contributing to the development of an effective pol organization.

1×10 = 10mks

19.       (a) Factors that led to increased slave trade along the east Africa coast during the 17th century.

  • Demand for slave labour on plantation form in malindi and mombasa and in clove plantation in Zanzibar and pemba.
  • Demand for slave labour in French sugar plantations on the island of reunion and Mauritius increased.
  • Demand for slave porters in the ivory trade which the u.s.a Britain and India participated in these transport agricultural goods in malindi
  • Demand for slaves to work as domestic servants and soldiers in Arabia.
  • Demand for slaves to work in Portuguese plantations in brazil. They had failed to get from Angola so they turned to get turned to the east African coast.        1×3 = 3mks

(b) Effects slaves trade in Africa.

  • Africans were subjected to untold suffering and misery during slave raids e.g loss of property, life, displacements. E.t.c
  • Led to depopulation hence agriculture was undermined leading to famine and starvation.
  • Warefare increased due to slave raids. This was enhanced by the use of guns.
  • It led to fear and suspicious among the people as they had lost confidence in their leaders.
  • It undermined traditional industries as those with such skills were taken as slaves in addition, ready made items introduced to the coast were now favoured by the locals.
  • The use of slaves as porters promoted the trade in ivory and copper.
  • The Africans later regained their moral status and dignity as human beings after the abolition of the trade.
  • Establishment of freed slave centres at Freetown and Bagamoyo.          6×2 = 12mks

20.       (a) Reasons why Nabongo mumia of the wanga collaborated with the British during the colonial period

  • To boast his personal image/prestige
  • To be made paramount chief
  • To get protection against the luo, nandi etc
  • To get modern fire arms.
  • To achieve territorial expansion.
  • Had realized his weakness as compared to the British.
  • Western civilization.         (1 x 7 = 7

(b) How wanga collaboration benefited them.

  • Mumia was made paramount chief over other communities
  • Wanga served as missionaries
  • An administrative centres was built in wanga.
  • The wanga people benefited from trade since wanga became a trade terminus.
  • The wanga acquired firearms
  • The wanga people and other abaluya developed enemity.
  • They were employed as social agents in wastern kenya.
  • His Head quarter became an administrative centre.
  • They benefited from western education.  (8 x 1 = 8mks)

21.       (a) What enabled the mau mau to have a protracted war against the British.

  • Oathing helped unite the fighters
  • They used querilla tactics
  • Civilian population supplied the fighters with food and ammunition.
  • Ex-world war II soldiers e.g Dedan kimathi, general china were able to impart the fighters with both skills and inspiration.
  • The natural forest of mt. Kenya and the arbadare ranges provided good hide outs for fighters.
  • The fighters had access to swords, guns and ammunitions

(b) Contribution of Oginga Odinga (political)

  • 1946 – 1949 he contested the central nyanza African district council election and won
  • 1948 Odinga first met Kenyatta, when Kenyatta visited Kisumu in an effort to popularize KAU and urged the Luo union to join KAU
  • 1952, he mobilized the luo union to raise funds for the kapenguria defence
  • In 1954, when councilor Ambrose Ofafa of Nairobi was assassinated by mau mau warriors for being a collaborator. Here there was a crisis between the agikuyu and the Luo in Nairobi. Oginga moved in to calm the situation
  • In 1957 Oginga contested for the nyanza seat and won. He joined the AEMO as the chairman. This group rejected the lennox boyd constitution.
  • 1958 the AEMO boycotted the legco demanding further constitutional reforms and release of Kenyatta
  • 1959. AEMO split into two. The Kenya national party (KNP) led by Ngala and Kenya independent movement (KIM) led by oginga.
  • In 1959, the elected members were joined by Asians and formed the constituency elected members organization (CEMO) which sent a multiracial delegation to resolve the constitutional stalemate.
  • 1960 joined the deligation to the first Lancaster house conference in London.
  • 1960, Oginga and other members held a meeting in kiambu.
  • He travelled extensively building relationships and raising funds for KANU. He visited Ghana, Guinea, Egypt, Sweden, Japan, China.
  • He was elected to represent central nyanza.
  • He and other refused to form the government because kenyatta was in prison.
  • In 1962 he was among the delegates in he second Lancaster house conference
  • KANU and KADU won election and formed the government and Oginga became the minister for home affairs.       1×10 = 10mks

22.       (a) five merits of democracy.

  • Since it is founded on the consent of the people the leaders cannot ignore the people.
  • It recognizes equality among all the people irrespective of their colour, gender or religious beliefs. i.e equality before the law.
  • Democracy has a moral and educative values i.e those who want to be elected have to develop their personality.
  • It balances the liberty of the individual with the power of the state. This is because laws are made with the consent of the people who thereby have to abide by them willingly. They don’t feel that their liberty is curtailed unfairly.
  • Democracy promotes patriotism and reduces the chances of a revolution.
  • It promotes peace in the country because it advocates for peaceful co-existence.  1×5 = 5mks

(b) Limitations of democracy.

  • It promotes dictatorship by the majority.
  • It encourages class struggle and corruption i.e it is only those who have money and can engage in intensive campaigns who get elected since they can influence voters. Once elected they form the government and formulate laws that protect their interest.
  • A democratic government is often slow and wasteful. Consultations have to be made. Time and public resources are used in the process
  • It is not easy to find an honest, sincere man of good moral character being elected.
  • It may perpetuate incompetence in this case the number is required hence quality of a candidate are not taken into account. In most cases the majority of the voters are usually masses of ignorant people.
  • Although democracy is regarded as the title of the majority, in practice it is the elcted minority who rule.      5×2 = 10mks

23.       (a) Why are elections carried out in Kenya.

  • In order to give citizens the opportunity to exercise their constitutional rights of participating in the democratic process.
  • To give citizens a chance to choose leaders whom they have confidence in
  • To enable people to give mandate the party of their choice to rule
  • To inject new blood into parliament and government.
  • To enable sitting MPs to be responsive to the development needs of the electorate and to be conscious and alert
  • It’s a constitutional requirement that general elections be held every five years.
  • To choose a good government/party or replace one that is not working to the expectations of the people.
  • To enable citizens participate in the government process.                        1×5 = 5mks

(b)Functions of civil service

  • They explain and interprete government policies to the people
  • They participate in the preparation of development plans and the budget
  • They implement government policies and programmes by mobilizing citizens to initiate and participate in development projects.
  • The civil service ensures continuity in the government by keeping and maintaining government records necessary for continuity of the government operations.
  • They collect government revenue and at the same time account for government expenditure.
  • Civil servants e.g the PC, DC and the Dos maintain law and order throughout the country. They chair security meetings in their respective areas of operation.
  • They advise the ministers on matters of policy. They also prepare answers to parliamentary questions that are asked in parliaments
  • Civil servants offer direct services to the nation as doctors, lawyers, engineers, accountants e.t.c
  • Through the provincial administration, civil servants links the local people with the central government.                  1×10 = 10mks

24.       (a) Functions of the attorney general

  • He is the head of the AGs chamber. A government department that directs the office of registrar.
  • He is the chief legal advisor to the government
  • He is a member of cabinet hence answers questions in parliament on behalf of other ministers
  • He is an ex  -official member of parliament and answers questions on behalf of members of parliament
  • He is a member of the judicial service commission hence advises the president in the appointment of high court and court of appeal judges.
  • He is a member of the advisory committee on prerogative mercy.
  • He handles matters concerning the judiciary in parliament.
  • He is the protector of public interest
  • He is the chief public prosecutor e.g he has power to institute and undertake criminal proceedings against any offence committed by a person e.t.c  1×5 = 5mks

(b) Reasons why the government of Kenya prepares the national budget

  • The budget helps the government to prioritize its needs giving prominence to the most urgent ones.
  • The budget enables the government to identify sources of government revenue to meet their financial obligations.
  • The government identifies the development projects to finance in the coming financial year.
  • The budget gives MPs an opportunity to discuss the government expenditure before its put into use.
  • The budget helps the government to balance its revenue and expenditure needs.
  • The government determines and explains to the public the tax structure through the budget
  • The budget ensures balanced and equitable development in the country.
  • The budget through supplementary expenditure enables the government to plan for certain needs that emerges in the government to plan for certain needs that emerge in the course of the year. E.g drought, disease outbreak etc
  • The government can assess its performance in the previous budgets and rectify areas of weakness if any. It may provide useful information to organizations and individuals who may want to keep track of government expenditure and invest in Kenya.
  • It enhances the identification of government departments and their needs in order to allocate funds appropriately to each department. This ensures transparency and accountability in government operation
  • Through the budget, the government communicates its plans and policies to its local and foreign development partners.
  • The volume of the budget also indicates the expansion of services provided by the government. The more the service provided by the government the bigger the budget will be.               1×10 = 10mks

NANDI CENTRAL JOINT EVALUATION TEST – 2010

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER II

MARKING SCHEME

1.         Two contributions of archaeology to the study of History

  • It gives the information on the origin of human beings
  • Provides information on the peoples ways of life
  • Helps people locate historical sites
  • It provides information on the chronological order of historical events/dating. 2×1 = 2mks

2.         Two cash crops grown in North America during the Agrarian Revolution

  • Tobacco
  • Cotton
  • Corn
  • Wheat  2×1 = 2mks

3.         The greatest contribution of Robert Koch in the field of Science

  • Discovered the microbes that cause Tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. 1×1= 1mk

4.         Two advantages of cinemas

  • Gives better understanding
  • Everything comes live             2 x 1 = 2mk

5.         Two results of space exploration

  • Led to production of complicated weapons
  • promoted scientific research
  • -led to better understanding of the universe   2 x 1 = 2

6.         Two reasons why coal was used as the main source of industrial power in Britain during the Industrial Revolution

  • It was cheap
  • available in large quantities
  • was more efficient than other sources of energy at the time              2 x 1 = 2

7.         Two political challenges in Tanzania since independence

  • Army mutiny of 1964
  • Political power was in the hands of the urban elites
  • The political marriage between Zanzibar and Tanganyika thus ideological differences
  • The policy of Africanization of political institutions. 1×1 = 1mk

8.         Two reforms made by Mobutu Sese Seko in attempts to stabilize the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence

  • He reformed constitution and stripped parliament of its powers.
  • He abolished the federal system and the local assemblies.
  • He reduced the number of provinces to eight
  • The civil servants were to be appointed by the central government
  • He founded his own party the popular Movement Revolution.         2×1 = 2 mks

9.         The main factor that contributed to the development of Johannesburg city

  • Discovery of gold in Witwatersrand.                                                 1×1 = 1

10.       The main cause of the failure of the Mwanga Revolt of 1897 against the British

  • The Baganda people supported the British against Mwanga.

11.       Two functions of the Kabaka of Buganda

  • He was the Head of Government
  • Was the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces
  • Appointed senior officials in the government.
  • Was a supreme judge
  • He was incharge of all religious activities
  • He controlled trade                 2×2 = 4mks

12.       The main aim of the Berlin Conference between 1884 and 1885

  • For peaceful partition of Africa.                     1 x 1 = 1

13.       Why Southern Rhodesia refused to merge with South Africa in 1923

  • They feared the merger would inevitably lead to their domination by Afrikaners in political matters.                                                         1 x 1 = 1

14.       The immediate cause of the 2nd World War

  • Hitler’s ambitions – invaded Poland violating the agreement.                       1 x 1 = 1

15.       Two privileges that members of British Parliament enjoy

  • Freedom of speech
  • Freedom from harassment e.g. arrest within presence of parliament
  • Protection against arrest on civil offences for a period of 40 days after a session of parliament.

2 x 1 = 2

16.       The main factor that led to the end of Cold War

  • Collapse of USSR                   1 x 1 = 1

17.       The reason why the Electoral College is regarded as the heart of USA electoral process

  • Selects the US President.                                1 x 1 = 1

SECTION B

18.       (a) Three factors that led to the development of religious beliefs in Societies

  • Desire to understand things that were beyond human understanding e.g. moon, floods and drought.
  • Search for security in the face of uncertainties to human existence e.g. death
  • Attempts by the human race to explain their existence on earth.
  • Desire to keep the community together
  • Desire for unity
  • Direct and indirect divine revelation to certain individuals in society

b) The characteristics of Homo erectus

  • Was upright/bipedal/walked on two legs
  • More intelligent than the earlier apes/higher thinking capacity
  • Had a bigger brain capacity 775 – 1225cc
  • Had more developed speech than earlier apes
  • Had more developed hand for grasping tools.
  • Had a long skull
  • Had long protruding jaws
  • Made more refined tools than Homo Habilis e.g. archeulian tools.    2 x 5 = 10

19.       (a) Five factors that promoted plantation farming in Europe during the Agrarian Revolution

  • The invention of machines for extensive farming e.g. horse drawn plough, iron hoes.
  • Discovery of fertilizers which led to high yield/manure.
  • Discovery of pesticides and fungicides which facilitate control of crops diseases.
  • Improvement in transport especially the railway which facilitated transportation of bulky goods/farm produce and farm workers.
  • High demand for food for rapidly growing in population.
  • Demand for agricultural and industrial raw materials.
  • Development of new breeds of crops as a result of research in agriculture.
  • The enclosure system pushed people out of the rural areas and created room for plantation agriculture.                             5 x 1 = 5

(b) Five similarities between early agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt.

  • In both countries agriculture was practiced along the river valley. Farmers depended on flood water for farming.
  • They developed system of irrigation
  • They used farm implements made of stone, wood and later metal.
  • They traded in farm produce.
  • Planted indigenous crops
  • Used both human and animal labour.
  • Developed a system of storage and preserving of foods.                   2 x 5 = 10

20        a) Three advantages of motorcycle as modern means of transportation

  • Cheap compared to charges by other means
  • Reliable and convenient
  • Fast as compared to bicycle.                                                   Any 3×1 = 3 mks

b) Six effects of the modern forms of transport

  • Modern transport systems have facilitated the faster movement of goods and people
  • Transport systems have enhanced social developments such as schools and hospitals.
  • Population migration and settlement all over the world have been encouraged.
  • A sound transport network enhances political control in a nation.
  • Availability of good transport network led to colonization of Africa.
  • Fatal accidents have resulted due to the development of air transport.
  • Modern transport system has enhanced the exploitation of natural resources.
  • Tourism a major foreign exchange earner has been promoted.
  • Expansion of the transport system has led to the creation of employment opportunities.
  • Growth of towns/urban centres.
  • Led to enhanced agricultural development.
  • Local and international trade improved.
  • Industrial revolution is as a result of good transport systems.
  • Countries in the world earn a lot of revenue due to charges on licenses, oil and fuel levies.
  • Exchange of new ideas, science, religion, culture has been promoted.          Any 6×2 = 12 mks

21.       a) Three functions of the Buganda traditional parliament

  • It made laws for the Kingdom
  • It checked on activities of the government
  • It presented the interests of the people
  • It advised the Kabaka                         3 x 1 = 3

b) The political organization of the Mwene Mutapa Kingdom during the pre-colonial period.

  • The empire was ruled by an emperor who was both head of state and government.
  • The office of the emperor was hereditary
  • The emperor was assisted in administering by the queen military head drummer emperor’s, sister etc
  • The empire was divided into provinces which were ruled by lesser chiefs who were directly answerable to the emperor.
  • The empire had a standing army which was used for defense and expansion of the Kingdom.
  • The emperor controlled trade activities whose revenue was used to sustain the empire and the army.
  • Priests acted as a link between the people and the emperor.
  • The King was a military leader.
  • The King was a religious leader.
  • The prestige and loyalty to the King was maintained and expressed
  • Through a strict ceremonial behaviour of lighting the royal fire in the royal court and the carrying of the flame of the same by chiefs to their chiefdoms.
  • The King controlled the Kingdom from his royal palace/capital based at Great Zimbabwe/Mapungubwe and later from Dande. (2×6 = 12 mks)

22.       a) How the British sea blockage of 1916 benefit the Allied powers in the first World War

  • Blocked the central powers hence couldn’t get the raw materials and food from other parts.
  • Allied powers captured the colonies of the central powers.
  • Allied powers maintained uninterrupted communication with other allied powers.
  • Safeguarded the British and the allies food and material supplies from other parts.
  • Frustrated Germany and the Central powers. (Weakened).   5 x 1 = 5

b) Why the Treaty of Versailles was a threat to peace

  • Its aim was to bring lasting peace but did not achieve e.g. Germany’s interests were ignored.
  • Colonial peoples interests were ignored e.g. African interests in the former colonies of Germany and Turkey e.g. Tanganyika, Togo.
  • The interests of the minorities were ignored in Europe e.g. the new Republic of Austria was forbidden from merging with Germany against their wish.
  • Italy’s interests were ignored. They were given a raw deal. They only got Stria that was curved from Austria.
  • USA president Woodrow Wilson proposed the formation of the league but the State wasn’t committed to it.
  • Powers agreed on disarmament but this was in theory for they came up with weapons of mass destruction.                                                            (5×2 = 10 mks)

23.       a) Five aims of the organization of African Unity – OAU

  • To promote continental unity
  • To defend African sovereignty
  • To eradicate colonialism
  • To promote international cooperation
  • To make efforts to uplift the standards of African peoples.                          Any 5×1= 5 mks

b) The challenges of OAU since its inception

  • Deep roated border disputes among members
  • Interference by major super powers in African affairs
  • Inadequate finances
  • Non-existence of a military force
  • Personal differences between African leaders
  • Neo-colonialism, some African countries continued to have a strong attachment to their former colonial masters.
  • Political instability – civil wars
  • Ideological differences between member states.
  • Some countries put their national interests first before that of OAU
  • Some member states of OAU have divided loyalty as are members of other organizations also.
  • Some African leaders violate human rights e.g. Idi Amin. Uganda, Mobutu Sese Seko.
  • Lack of continuity of OAU due to constant change of leadership.               Any 10×1 = 10 mks

24        a) The features of state governments in the United States of America

  • They have the governor who is the administrative head.
  • Each state has law courts that handle internal affairs.
  • Each state has its own social amenities e.g. education, health etc.
  • Each state is responsible for its development
  • Each state has its own capital.
  • Each state generates its own revenue
  • Each state has state legislatives to pass state laws.
  • Each state has a bicameral legislature
  • Each state has a state police to maintain law and order                                             5×1 = 5 mks

b) Functions of the Federal Government

  • It regulates trade between the states.
  • It controls/regulates trade between states and foreign countries.
  • It authorizes the printing and circulation of currency,
  • It declares war and makes peace with other countries of the world
  • It formulates foreign policies involving the USA and other countries.
  • It regulates taxation within the USA
  • It establishes federal postal services in USA
  • It passes federal laws
  • It establishes federal courts/army
  • Admits new states to the union                                  5×2 = 10 mks

Name……………………………………………………….                  Index No…………………/…….

School………………………………………………………                   Date ………………………….…

Candidate’s Signature…………………………………….   

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

JULY / AUGUST 2010

Time: 2 ½ Hours

RARIEDA DISTRICT JOINT EVALUATION TEST – 2010

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

JULY / AUGUST 2010

Time: 2 ½ Hours

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper consists of THREE sections A, B and C.
  • Answer all the questions in section A, THREE questions from Section B and TWO questions 

From Section C.

  • Answers to all questions MUST be written in the answer booklet provided

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

Answer ALL the questions in this section in the answer sheets provided

1.         Give one disadvantage of oral traditions as a source of information on History and Government of

            Kenya                                                                                                                                      (1mk)

2.         Name two groups of Cushitic speakers in Kenya                                                                   (2mks)

3.         State two factors which were considered while choosing the chairman of the council of elders

            among the Nandi                                                                                                                    (2mks)

4.         Give two roles of medicine-men among the Akamba during the pre-colonial period in

Kenya                                                                                                                                      (2mks)

5.         Identify one commodity that was imported from China to the Kenyan coast during the Indian

            Ocean trade                                                                                                                             (1mk)

6.         Identify one method of colonial administration applied by the British in Kenya                  (1mks)

7.         Give two ways in which the construction of the Uganda Railway helped stop

            Slave trade in Kenya                                                                                                               (2mks)

8.         Identify any two groups that provided Education to Africans during the colonial period    (2mks)

9.         State two characteristics of the Independent churches and schools in Kenya during the

colonial period.                                                                                                                       (2mks)

10.       Give the main contribution of Daniel Arap Moi in the health sector in Kenya                      (1mk)

11.       State two challenges the Harambee Philosophy has faced in Kenya since its inception in

Kenya                                                                                                                                      (2mks)

12.       Give one way in which the institution of the presidency promotes National Unity              (1mk)

13.       Identify two disadvantages of a written constitution                                                                        (2mks)

14.       Identify one class of human rights                                                                                         (1mk)

15.       Name the body that was created to conduct elections following the disbanding of Electoral

            commission of Kenya in 2008                                                                                                (1mk)

16.       Name the political head of a town council in Kenya                                                              (1mk)

17.       What is the Main source of government revenue in Kenya                                                    (1mk)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer any Three questions from this section in the answer sheets provided.

18.       a)         State five results of the migration of the Maasai into Kenya during the pre-colonial

Period                                                                                                                          (5mks)

            b)         Describe the political organization of the Somali in Kenya during the pre-colonial

period                                                                                                                          (10mks)

19.      a)          State three reasons why the Omani Arabs appointed local Arab families to control the East

                        African coast on their behalf after defeating the Portuguese                                     (3mks)

            b)         Explain the results of the development of plantation agriculture on the East African coast

                        by Seyyid Said                                                                                    (12mks)

20.       a)         State five benefits of the construction of the Uganda railway to the colonial

government in Kenya                                                                                                  (5mks)

            b)         Outline the efforts made to improve health services in Kenya during the colonial

period                                                                                                                          (10mks)

21.       a)         Give five methods used by the African Nationalists in Kenya in their struggle for

                        Independence                                                                                                 (5mks)

            b)         Explain any five results of Mau Mau uprising in Kenya                    (10mks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer sheets provided.

22.       a)         Identify three aspects of democracy                                                                          (3mks)

            b)         Outline six electoral malpractices that are a threat to democracy in Kenya               (12mks)

23.       a)         Give any three roles of armed forces in Kenya                                                          (3mks)

            b)         What challenges does the provincial administration face in Kenya                           (12mks)

24.       a)         Identify three steps in the law making process that take place outside parliament    (3mks)

            b)         Explain how parliament check the powers of other organs of the government in

Kenya                                                                                                                          (12mks)

Name……………………………………………………….                  Index No…………………/…….

School………………………………………………………                   Date ………………………….…

Candidate’s Signature…………………………………….   

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2

JULY / AUGUST 2010

Time: 2 ½ Hours

RARIEDA DISTRICT JOINT EVALUATION TEST – 2010

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper consists of THREE sections A, B and C.
  • Answer ALL questions in Section A, THREE questions from Section B and TWO           

            questions from  Section C

  • Answers to ALL questions must be written in a separate answer booklet provided.

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

Answer all the questions in this section in the Answer booklet provided.

1 .        State one limitation in the use of linguistics as a source of information on history.              (1mk)

2.         Give the main reason why East Africa is believed to be the first home of man.                    (lmk)

3.         Give two benefits that man got from the domestication of animals.                                                 (2 mks)

4.         State two disadvantages of using the railway line as a modern means of transport.             (2 mks)

5.         Identify two uses of Bronze in Ancient Africa.                                                                     (2 mks)

6.         List two factors that contributed to the rise of Meroe as an early urban centre.                    (2 mks)

7.         Identify one type of trade.                                                                                                     (1 mk)

8.         State two functions of the Lukiko in the Buganda kingdom in the 19th century.                 (2 mks)

9.         Give two political factors that contributed to the scramble and partition of Africa.             (2 mks)

10.       State one economic effect of the Chimurenga war.                                                               (1 mk)

11.       Give the main reason why the British applied the policy of direct rule in Zimbabwe.          (1 mk)

12.       Name two members of the Triple Entente alliance during the First World War.                   (2 mks)

13.       Identify the political party that led Ghana to independence in 1957.                                   (1 mk)

14.       State the main political challenge that has faced Democratic Republic of Congo after       

independence.                                                                                                                                     (1 mk)

15.       Give two reasons why the United Nations Organizations was formed.                                (2 mks)

16.       Identify the highest organ of the new East African community.                                           (1 mk)

17.       State one role of the President in the government of India.                                                  (1 mk)

SECTIUN B (45 MARKS)

Answer any three Questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

18.      a)         Identify three agricultural practices that were used in Britain before 17th Century.(3mks)

b)         Explain six ways in which the third world countries are trying to achieve food

security.                                                                                                                       (12mks)

19.       a)         Name three West African Kingdoms which grew as a result of the Trans-Saharan

            Trade.                                                                                                                          (3mks)

b)         Describe the organization of the Trans-Saharan trade.                       (12mks)

20.       a)        Give three reasons why Lewanika made his people to collaborate with the British.(3mks)

b)         Explain six effects of the Buganda collaboration with the British.    (12mks) 21.     a)         Identify three social features of the Asante empire in the 19th Century          (3mks)

b)          Describe the political organization of the Shona Kingdom in the 19th            century.                                                                                                         12mks)

SECTION C (30 mks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

22.       a)         Give three reasons why the French successfully applied the policy of assimilation

in the commune of Goree.                                                                                          (3mks)

b)         Explain six social effects of the policy of Assimilation in Senegal                            (12mks)

23.       a)         Give three reasons that led to the formation of the Pan African movement.                        (3mks)

b)         Explain six challenges that have undermined the existence of the Non-Aligned

Movement.                                                                                                                  (12mks)

24.       a)         Identify three main branches of the government of India.                                         (3mks)

b)         Explain the role of regional governments in the United States of America.              (12mks)

RARIEDA DISTRICT JOINT EVALUATION TEST – 2010

311/1

HISTORY

PAPER 1

MARKING SCHEME.

1.         Give one disadvantage of oral traditions as a source of information on History and Government of Kenya                                                                                                 (1mk)

            –           The stories may be exaggerated. It is hard to tell  what is real and what is imagined

            –           Some information may be forgotten or omitted since human memory is not precise

            –           The stories may be changed for various reasons.

            –           It does not provide dates or sequence of events

            –           Its expensive as one has to pay accommodation, lunch transport and of informant.

            –           It is time consuming, interviewing people

2.         Name two groups of Cushitic speakers in Kenya                                                              (2mks)

–           The Eastern Cushites                                                                                      2 x 1 = 2mks

            –           The Southern Cushites

3.         State two factors which were considered while choosing the chairman of the council of elders             among the Nandi                                                                                                       (2mks)

–           His generosity / His Wealth

            –           His wise judgment / wisdom

            –           His oratory skills                                                                                             2 x 1 = 2mks

4.         Give two roles of medicinemen among the Akamba during the pre-colonial period in

Kenya                                                                                                                                     (2mks)

–           Treatment of various ailments

            –           Offerings sacrifices

            –           Praying to God and ancestral spirits.                                                              2 x 1 = 2mks

5.         Identify one commodity that was imported from China to the Kenyan coast during the Indian Ocean trade                                                                                                               (1mk)

–           Porcelain bowls

            –           Daggers

            –           Swords

            –           Potter

            –           Silk

            –           Beads

            –           Glass ware                                                                                                      

6.         Identify one method of colonial administration applied by the British in Kenya            (2mks)

–           Direct in Kenya

            –           Indirect rule

7.         Give two ways in which the construction of the Kenya Uganda Railway helped stop

            Slave trade in Kenya                                                                                                             (2mks)

–           Slave porters were no longer needed since the railway would ferry goods to and

from the coast.                                                                                                            1 x 1 = 1mk

  • It enabled the quick movement of troops into the interior to stamp out the trade
  • It helped promote other profitable sources of income which acted as an alternative to slavery and slave trade.

8.         Identify any two groups that provided Education to Africans during the colonial period

(2mks)

–           The missionaries                                                                                  2 x 1 = 2mks  

  • The colonial government
  • The Asians
  • The African themselves                                                                      2 x 1 = 2mks

9.         State two characteristics of the Independent churches and schools in Kenya during the

colonial period.                                                                                                                      (2mks)

–           They incorporated African cultural values

  • They were led by Africans
  • Worked closely with African political association
  • Wire against the westernizing influence of the missionaries
  • They valued Christianity and western education.                                          2 x 1 = 2mks

10.       Give the main contribution of Daniel Arap Moi in the health sector in Kenya               (1mk)

–           The buildings of Nyayo wards across the country.

11.         State two challenges the Harambee Philosophy has faced in Kenya since its inception in

Kenya                                                                                                                                     (2mks)

–           Has been abused to buy votes.                                                           1 x 1 = 1mk

  • Public servants and politicians have had to engage in corruption to get money to donate in Harambee
  • Stage show for the have’s and have notes.
  • Sometimes money raised has not been used for the intended purposes.        2 x 1 = 2mks

12.       Give one way in which the institution of the presidency promotes National Unity         (1mk)

–           The President as head of state and government unites all Kenyas.

  • All Kenyans look upto one President for protection.                                     1 x 1 = 1mk

13.       Identify two disadvantages of a written constitution                                                         (2mks)

–           It is not easy to amend

            –           It tends to give judiciary to much power

            –           They are rarely read and understood by ordinary citizens

            –           The procedure for amending the constitution is slow and costly.

            –           They sometimes invite disputes and disagreement in interpretation. 2 x 1 = 2mks

14.       Identify one class of human rights                                                                           (1mk)

–           Classical human rights / political civil rights

            –           Social Humans rights / social / economic

            –           Third generation Human rights / solidarity rights                                           1 x 1 = 1mk

15.       Name the body that was created to conduct elections following the disbanding of Electoral

            commission of Kenya in 2008                                                                                               (1mk)

–           Interim independent electoral commission(IIEC)                              1 x 1 = 1mk

16.       Name the political head of a town council in Kenya                                                          (1mk)

–           Chairman / chair person .                                                                    1 x 1 = 1mk

17.       What is the Main source of government revenue in Kenya                                              (1mk)

–           Taxes                                                                                                   1 x 1 = 1mk

18        a) State five results of the migration of the Maasai into Kenya during the pre-colonial

Period                                                                                                                         (5mks)

            –            Intermarriages occurred / took place between the Maasai and

neighbouring communities.    

  • Expansion of economic activities of trade, pastoralism
  • There was cultural interraction’
  • There was increased conflict among communities
  • Leadership developed where they settled e.g Laibon
  • Population increased.                                                                                      5 x 1 = 5mks

b)         Describe the political organization of the Somali in Kenya during the pre- colonial

period                                                                                                                         (10mks)

            The basic political unit was the clan

  • The clan was headed by council of elders
  • The council of elders maintained law and order and settled disputes
  • They practiced the age – set system
  • They existed warriors whose main duty was to protect the community from external attack
  • They also had sheiks / sultans as leaders expecially after adopting Islam.     5 x 2 = 10mks

19.       a)         State three reasons why the Omani Arabs appointed local Arab families to

control the East African coast on their behalf after defeating the Portuguese   (3mks)

–           They were civil wars in Oman

  • They feared rebellion by coastal towns
  • The Persians threatened to conquer Oman                                                     3 x 1 = 3mks

b)         Explain the results of the development of plantation agriculture on the East African coast by Seyyid Said                                                                                                    (12mks)

–           It led to increased slave trade for slave labour

  • Introduction of new crops such as cloves, coconut and maize
  • Development of towns like Malindi, pemba
  • Promoted trade
  • Growth of wealthy merchants among the Arabs and Swahili
  • It led to depopulation in the interior as slaves were taken to work in farms at the coast’
  • The population of foreigners from Oman increased at the coast
  • Slaves were expected to poor working condition and long hours of work.   6 x 2 = 12mks

20.       a)         State five benefits of the construction of the Uganda railway to the colonial

government in Kenya                                                                                               (5mks)

            –           It enabled the British to administer the colony more effectively

  • The railway promoted the exploitation of natural resources of the colony.
  • It promoted the growth of trade.
  • It was a major source of revenue for the colonial government
  • It enhanced the development of other forms of transport and communication.5 x1 = 5mks

b)         Outline the efforts made to improve health services in Kenya during the colonial

period                                                                                                                         (10mks)

            Various missionary groups established medical facilities in the country

–           The missionaries started medical training centres after 1 st world war e.g Alliance medical college

  • The government provided financial support to ensure that Europeans were protected from typhoid, Malaria, dysentery.
  • Africans were taught hygiene through public baraza.
  • Vaccines were introduced to prevent diseases
  • After 1945 development and Research Authority gave £47 000 for health care and improvement of health services
  • 1951 the King George hospital began to train female nurses.
  • The government established public health centres and hospitals in different parts of the country.                                                                                                   5 x 2 = 10mks

21.        a)        Give five methods used by the African Nationalists in Kenya in their struggle for Independence                                                                                                                        (5mks)

            –           Advocacy through the international bodies such as UNO, AU, common wealth,

              –         Presented there grievances to the colonial secretary e.g in 1931 .Kenyatta went to London

            –           Armed struggle by Mau Mau.

  • Strikes and boycotts, sit ins
  • Demonstration / peaceful demonstrations / protests
  • Use of trade unions to agitate for African rights
  • Public rallies
  • Mass media
  • Formation of political parties – KAU,KANU.
  • Composed songs
  • Constitutional negotiations
  • e.g Lyttleton constitution, the Lennox Boyd constitution.                5 x 1 = 5mks

b)         Explain any five results of Mau Mau uprising in Kenya                                            (10mks)

–           Many Africans were arrested and detained.

  • The government restricted African political parties e.g KAU was banned in 1953.
  • Led to establishment of emergency villages created to alienate civil society  from the fighters
  • Led to declaration of state of emergency in Kenya in 1952 with so many restrictions
  • It breds bitterness among the Gikuyu members since they were divided between the government loyalties and Mau Mau.
  • Kenyan resources were depleted by war and economic activities like Agriculture, trade and industries disrupted
  • Attracted attention of British and international community
  • Speeded up the march to independence
  • The power and influence of settlers were reduced since it was the cause of African bitterness
  • Kipande system was modified to pure identity card demands
  • Land reforms measures such  as land consolidation were adopted
  • Political reforms were initiated e.g lift on ban against political parties.         5 x 2 = 5mks

SECTION C ( 30MARKS)

22.       a)         Identify three aspect of democracy                                                                         (3mks)

          –             Political aspect – process of electing leaders and expressing dislikes through them.

  • Social aspect – a means through which people are free to express opinions and associate with others
  • Economic aspect – Promote equal opportunities to all citizens.         3 x 1 = 3mks

b)         Outline six electoral malpractices that are a threat to democracy in Kenya        (12mks)

–           Harassment of voters by rival groups / intimidation of voters.

  • Partisan election officials
  • Bribery of voters
  • Disruption of polling exercises
  • Uses of witch craft and forced illegal oathing
  • Rigging by election officials
  • Buying of voter cards
  • Double registration by voters
  • Negative propaganda against opponent e.g circulating defamatory, leaflets
  • Instigation of violence / insecurity.                                                     6 x 2 = 12mks

23.       a)         Give any three roles of armed forces in Kenya                                                      (3mks)

            –           Defend the country in event  of an external attack

  • Assist the police when they are overwhelmed
  • Participate in nation building e.g road, bridge construction
  • They entertain the public during National days
  • They participate in peace keeping missions abroad under the UN supervision.
  • Their presence is a deterent measure against would be external attackers
  • The Kenya Navy ensures that no illegal landings and fishing take place in Kenyan waters.

                                                                                                                                    3 x 1 = 3mks

b)         What challenges does the provincial administration face in Kenya                     (12mks)

–           Imbalance in population, some regions are very densely populated causing land lessness and insecurity whereas others are sparsely, populated refunding developments efforts.

–           Insecurity e.g land clashes, cattle rustling, increased crime.

–           Natural disasters e.g floods, drought, leading to famine.

–           Inadequate infrastructure such as roads, electricity, water, health centres etc.

–           Inadequate funds to offer services effectively

–           Corruption by some officials

–           Illiteracy and poverty among the people of Kenya

–           Retrogressive customes and traditions e.g child marriages, F.G.M etc

–           Tribalism and Ethnic tendencies among officials.

–           Antisocial activities e.g drag peddling, changaa brewing etc

–           Inadequate facilities for transport and communication e/g Motor vehicle, Telephone, fax .

                                                                                                                        6 x 2 = 12mks

24.       a)         Identify three steps in the law making process that take place outside parliament

(3mks)

–           The drafting of a bill

            –           Presidential assent

            –           Publishing of the Bill in the Kenya Gazettee                                     3 x 1 = 3mks

            b)          Explain how parliament chock the powers of other organs of the government in

Kenya                                                                                                                         (12mks)

–           It is empowered to control revenue collection and government expenditure

            –           Parliament ensures that government money is spent property

            –           It reviews the constitution

            –           It can pass a vote of no confidence in the government of the day

–           It checks on the possible abuse of power be executive and thus promote good governance and accountability

–           Parliament is the supreme law making organ , in the country, once it make law, they are binding to every body.                                                                             6 x 2 = 12mks

RARIEDA  DISTRICT JOINT EVALUATION TEST – 2010

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

1.         State one limitation in the use of linguistics as a source of information on history.        (1mk)

– Some languages are difficult to understand,

– Some languages are archaic/extinct.

– It takes long to learn a particular language.

– Some words may have different meanings in different languages.

– Translations may interfere with the exact meaning of words.

(3 X 1 = 1 mk)

2.         Give the main reason why East Africa is believed to be the first home of man              (lmk)

– Remains of the earliest known hominids have been found here. (1 mk)

3.         Give two benefits that man got from the domestification of animals.                              (2 mks)

– man had constant supply of food.

– Man could now have a settled life as food was available.

– Man got skin, for clothing from slaughtered animals.

– Man engaged drought animals like donkeys and ox in works like transport and land preparation.

– Some animals like the dog gave him security. (2 x 1 — 2 mks)

4.         State two disadvantage of using the railway line as a modern means of transport.        (2 mks)

– Locomotives are very expensive to buy.

– Rails need a lot of money to construct.

– Cannot give door to door services.

– Not economical over short distances.

– Only good for large amount or bulky goods. (2 x 1 2 mks)

5.         Identify two uses of Bronze in Ancient Africa.                                          (2 mks)

– Making ornaments.

– Making weapons.

– Used as currency.

– Was an item of trade.

– Making statues. (2 x 1 2 rnks)

6.         List two factors that contributed to the rise of Moroe as an early urban centre.            (2 mks)

– Availability of iron.

– Availability of wood for smelting iron.

– Junction for transport.

7.         Identify one type of trade.                                                                                        (1 mk)

– Localtrade.

– Regional trade.

– International trade.

8.         State two functions of the Lukiko n the Buganda kingdom in the 19th century.           (2 mks)

– Advised the Kabaka.

– Made law.

– Helped the Kabaka to rule.               (2 x 1 = 2mks)

9.         Give two political factors that contributed to the scramble and partition of Africa.                  (2 mks)

– The Egyptian question.

– The rise of Germany.

– King Leopold’s activities in the Congo region.

– French activity in                              (2 x 1 = 2mks)

10.       State one economic effect of the Chimurenga war.                                                           (1 mk)

– Famine after farms were destroyed.

– Confiscation of African livestock.

11.         Give the main reason why the Bristish applied the policy of direct rule in Zimbabwe.(1 mk)

– They wanted to control resources like minerals in Zimbabwe directly.       (1 x 1 = 1mk)

12.       Name two members of the Triple Entente alliance during the First World War.           (2 mks)

–  Germany, Italy and Austria.

13.       Identify the political party that led Ghana to independence in 1957.                               (1 mk)

– Convention Peoples Party (CPP).                             (1 x 1 = 1mks)

14.       State the main political challenge that has faced Democratic Republic of Congo after

independence.                                                                                                                        (1 mk)

– Political instability/civil wars/dictatorship.               (1 X 1 = 1mk)

15.       Give two reasons why the United Nations Organizations was formed.                           (2 mks)

– To promote international peace and security.

– To promote respect for human rights and freedom.

– To protect interests of minority groups.

– To prevent another world war

– To promote international understanding /co-operation.       (2 x 1 = 2 mks)

16.       Identify the highest organ of the new East African ccrnmunity. (1 mk)

            – The assembly.

17.       State one role of the president in the government of India.

SECTION B (45 MKS)

18.       a)         State one role of the President in the government of India. (1 mk)

– Land fallowing.

– Farms were not fenced.

– Seeds were sown through broadcasting.

– Cultivation by the use of simple farm tools.

– Free breeding of livestock.

– Crop rotation.

– Absentee land lordship/tenancy.                  (3 x 1 = 3 mks)

b)         Identify three agricultural practices that were used in Britain before 17th Century.                                                                                                                                         (3mks)

– Reclamation of waste lands.

– Encouraging the cultivation of food crops.

– Employing the use of modem machineries in farming.

– Seeking for food aid from the west. Importation of foods.

– Opening up irrigation schemes.

– Encouraging the use of fertilizers by farmers in crop cultivation.

– Offering subsidies/financial assistance to their domestic farmers.

– Giving technical advice to farmers through extension officers.

– Improving storage facilities for food.                       (2 x 6 = 12 mks)

1 9.      a) Name three West African Kingdoms which grew as a result of the Trans – Saharan Trade                                                                                                                   (3mks)

                        –  Ancient Ghana

                        – Ancient Songai

                        –  Ancient Mali

                        – Dahomey                  (3 x 1 = 3 mks)

b)         Describe the organization of the Trans-Saharan trade.    (12mks)

– Was between north Africa and west Africa.

– It involved the Berbers of the North Tuaregs of the desert and the people of west Africa.

– Traders from the north traveled in caravans fti boost their security.

– Traders used the camels for the transportation of goods. It took the form of barter/.silent trade.

                       – Goods from north included guns, horses, salt, etc and from the south included slaves, gold, ivory, skin, etc.

– Northern trade posted their agent along the roots to promote their goods/coordinate the trade.

– Rich traders from the north financed the trade.

                     – West African leaders offered security to traders in their territories. (2 x  6= 12        Mks)

20.       a)         Give three reasons why Lewanika made his people to collaborate with

the British.                                                                                                                 (3mks)

– To consolidate his powers.

– He was influenced by Khama the King of Ngwato.

– For his people to get education.

– So the British could protect hrn from his hostile neighbours like the Ndebele.

– To acquire manufactured goods from the Europeans.

– He was influenced by the missionaries.                                (3 x 1 = 3 mks)

b)         Explain six effects of the Buganda collaboration with the British. (12mks)

– Facilitated the spread of Christianity in Buganda.

– Buganda became a springboard from which the British spread their influence in commerce and education..

– Buganda successfully kept off her enemies like Bunyoro.

– Intensified religious conflicts in Buganda.

– Reduced the power of Kabaka as more power was given to the Lukiko and court officials.

– Buganda community got advantage over other tribes by getting earlier western education and involving in administration.

– Created political crisis in Buganda when Mwanga was dethroned. (2 x 6 = 12 )

21.       a)         Identify three social features of the Asante empire in the 19th Century        .            (3mks)

– Worshiped many gods/polytheism.

– King was believed to be semi-divine.

– Golden stool was a sign of unity/social bond.

– Held Odwira festival annually.

– Practiced polygamy.

– Practiced exagamous marriage.

– Inheritance was

– Organized into clans.

– Spoke the Akhan or Tui language. (3 x 1 = 3 mks)

b)         Describe the political organization of the Shona Kingdom in the 19th  century.

(12mks)

– The Emperor/King was the head of the government and the head of the state.

– Office of the Emperor was hereditary.

– The Emperor was assisted by the Queen mother, the Head drummer, emperor’s sister, his Principle wives and the military commander.

– The empire was divided into provinces under the rule of lesser Kings/Chiefs.

– The empire had a standing army for defence and expansion.

– Priests acted as a link between the people and the emperor.

– The king was a military leader/Commander in Chief of the army.

– The King was considered a semi-divine ruler.

– Administration of the empire was financed by trade. (6 x 2 = 12 mks)

SECTION C (30 MKS)

22.       a)         Give three reasons why the French successfully applied the policy of assimilation

in the community of Gore.                                                                                       (3mks)

– Africans in the commune could speak French.

– The Africans in Gore had interacted for along time with European missionaries, traders and administrators.

– Africans in Gore had been converted to Christianity.

– There was a higher population of mixed race “mullato”

– The French had been there for a long time.              (3 x 1 = 3 mks)

b)         Explain six social effects of the policy of Assimilation in Senegal (12mks)

– Created a class of privileged Africans.

– Undermined African culture/promoted French culture.

– Undermined the spread of Islam as Africans converted to Christianity.

– Encouraged formal education in the coastal communes of Senegal.

– Enabled Africans to acquire French citizenship.

– French became the national/official language in Senegal. (2 x 6 = 12 mks)

23.       a)         Give three reasons that led to the formation of the Pan African movement.      (3mks)

                        – To fight racial discrimination.

– Fight against slavery.

– Need to restore black dignity/humanity.

– Need to fight colonialism.

– Need to promote African education.

– To promote black brotherhood/unity.                       (3 x 1 = 3 mks)

b)         Explain six challenges that have undermined the existence of the Non-Aligned

Movement.                                                                                                     (12mks)

– Political instability in many member states/civil wars in member states.

– Members give priority to the national interest.

– It does not have a permanent secretariat.

– Many members still have strong ties with their former colonial masters.

– Personality difference between leaders of the member states.

– End of cold war has made it almost irrelevant.

– Membership is too large making it coordination very difficult by its loose administration.

Boarder disputes amongst members states.

– Members belong to other organizations with conflicting interests. (2 x 6 = 12 mks)

24.       a)         Identify three main branches of the government of India.                                         (3mks)

– Executive

–  Judiciary

–  Legislature                                                                                                   (3 x 1 = 3 mks)

b)         Explain the role of regional governments in the United States of America.        (12mks)

– Generate their own revenue to run their own basic affairs.

– Maintain their own law and order.

– Provide their own basic amenities like health and educational services.

– Have their parliaments that enact their own laws which are not in conflict with the federal laws.

– Have their own court system that cater for internal justice.

– Contributes to the federal pool of revenue.                                                  6 x 2 = 12mks

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

JULY / AUGUST 2010

Time: 2 ½ HOURS

NYAHURURU DISTRICT JOINT EVALUATION TEST – 2010

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

JULY / AUGUST 2010

Time: 2 ½ HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

a)         This paper consists of THREE sections: A, B, and C.

b)         Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from

section C.

SECTION A: 25 MARKS

Answer ALL questions in this section.

1.         Give one social importance of studying history                                                         (1mk)

2.         State the main economic activity of the River- lake Nilotes                                      (1mk)

3.         Give two evidences that shows Portuguese ruled East African Coast.                      (2mks)

4.         List down two constitutional amendments to the Kenyan constitution from 1964 to 1966  (2mks)

5.         Identify one type of democracy practiced in Kenya.                                                 (1mk)

6.         Identify two social reasons for the scramble and partition of East Africa                             (2mks)

7.         In which year did Kenya change from a protectorate to the colony                          (1mk)

8.         Name one society which offered a mixed reaction to the British in western Kenya             (1mk)

9.         Why did the British promote settlers farming in Kenya                                             (1mk)

10.       Mention two shortcomings of missionary education in colonial Kenya                                 (2mks)

11.       Name the leader of East African Association in 1921.                                              (1mk)

12.       State two contributions of T.J.Mboya to trade Unionism                                          (2mks)

13        Name two pillars of Nyayoism                                                                                   (2mks)

14.       Mention one challenge that has led to low development of sports in Kenya                         (1mk)

15.       How does the government of Kenya plan to promote industrialization by 2030.      (1mk)

16.       List two ways through which parliament links people with government                   (2mks)

17.       Identify two types of local authorities in Kenya.                                                       (2mks)

SECTION B: 45 MARKS

Answer THREE questions in this section

18.       a)         State three results of Bantu migration and settlement into Kenya.                (3mks)

            b)         Describe the social organization of the Cushites                                            (12mks)

19.       a)         What factors influenced Seyyid Said decision to transfer his capital from Muscat to

Zanzibar?                                                                                                        (3mks)

            b)         Describe how the long distance trade was organized.                                    (12mks)

20.       a)         Give five terms of Devonshize white paper of 1923.                                                 (5mks)

            b)         Discuss five results of colonial land policies in Kenya.                                              (10mks)

21.       a)         List down five demands presented by Kenyatta to Hilton Young Commission in 1928.

(5mks)

            b)         Explain five characteristics of Independent schools and churches                            (10mks)

SECTION C: 30 MARKS

Answer TWO questions in this section

22.       a)         Outline three social responsibilities of a good citizen.                                                (3mks)

            b)         Explain six factors that promote National unity in Kenya                                         (12mks)

23.       a)         What are the challenges facing Interim Independent Electoral Commission (IIEC) today?                                                                                                     (5mks)

b)         Discuss the duties of the Kenyan cabinet.                                                      (10mks)

24.       a)         What are the functions of a district commissioner in Kenya?                        (5mks)

            b)         Discuss the challenges that affect the performance of the Kenyan civil services.     (10mks)

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2

JULY / AUGUST 2010

Time: 2 ½ HOURS

NYAHURURU DISTRICT JOINT EVALUATION TEST – 2010

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2

JULY / AUGUST 2010

Time: 2 ½ HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

a)         This paper consists of THREE sections: A, B, and C.

b)         Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from

            section C.

c)         Answers to all the questions must be clearly written in the answer sheets provided.

SECTION A. (25 MARKS)

Answer ALL questions in this section.

1.         State one importance of Oral tradition as a source of African history before 1500 AD.       (1mk)

2.         Identify two aspects of culture that developed during the new stone Age (Upper Paleolithic period)                                                                                                                     (2mks)

3.         Give one disadvantage of strip farming in Britain, before Agrarian Revolution                   (1mk)

4.         Name two European countries that participated in Trans-Atlantic Trade.                             (2mks)

5.         List down two negative effects for the growth of London.                                      (2mks)

6.         Give any one principle of democracy                                                                         (1mk)

7.         State two participation rights of a child.                                                                    (2mks)

8.         What was the contribution of John Dalton in scientific discoveries?                         (1mk)

9.         List down two components of a Constitution.                                                           (2mk)

10.       Mention one way through which Samore Toure used diplomacy to prevent the French invasion of   Mandinka                                                                                                            (1mk)

11.       What was the main feature of British direct rule in Zimbabwe?                                (1mk)

12.       Give any two similarities between the French Assimilation policy and British Indirect rule.(2mks)

13.       Which treaty marked the end of First World War (WW1)?                                       (1mk)

14.       State two ways through which World War Two (WW2) affected Africa.                (2mks)

15        Which was the main aim of Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)?                                 (1mk)

16.       Mention two political challenges that faced the Democratic Republic of Congo after Independence                                                                                                              (2mks)

17.       Name the main political party in India.                                                                      (1mk)

SECTION B: (45MKS)

Answer THREE questions in this section

18.       a)         Outline three reasons why railway transport is preferred to road transport in major towns                                                                  (3mks)

            b)         Describe the factors that led to development of early agriculture in Mesopotamia.2mks)

19.       a)         State five factors that facilitated the spread of iron working in Africa.        (5mks)

            b)         Explain five challenges that hinders Brazil to industrialize                            (10mks)

20.       a)         Account for the rise of Mwene Mutapa Kingdom                                         (5mks)

            b)         Describe the political organization of metropolitan Asante                            (10mks)

21.       a)         List down five reasons why Kabaka Mutesa Collaborated with the British  (5mks)

            b)         Discuss the results of Lewanika with the British                                           (10mks)

                                                            SECTION C: (45MKS)

                                                Answer TWO questions in this section

22.       a)         Give three ways through which Kwame Nkurumah promoted nationalism in Ghana (3mks)

            b)         Explain six reasons why South Africa took too long to achieve majority rule

(12mks)

23.       a)         Name three Africans who were members of Pan-Africanism                        (3mks)

            b)         Discuss six ways through which COMESA has benefited its members        (12mks)

24.       a)         Outline five functions of the USA congress                                                  (5mks)

            b)         Describe five roles of USA president                                                             (10mks)

NYAHURURU DISTRICT JOINT EVALUATION TEST – 2010

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

MARKING SCHEME

1.         – To understand our culture and appreciate other people’s culture

– To comprehend the social development of our societies e.g. migrations, interactions etc

– It helps in the development of virtues like empathy.                                               (1 x 1=1mk)

2.         – Fishing                                                                                                                      (1 x 1=1mk)

3.         – Coins

            – Fort-Jesus/vasco dagama pillars

– Names of towns

– Crops

– Swahili names                                                                                               (2 x 1=2mks)

4.         – Parliamentary system to republic/presidential system

            – Bicameral parliament into unicameral

            – Federalism was abolished

            – A member of parliament who defects looses his parliamentary seat and seek re election

                                                                                                                                    (2 x 1=2mks)

5.         – Indirect/ representative democracy

            – Constitutional democracy                                                                                         (1 x 1=1mk)

6.         – To spread Christianity

            – To abolish slave trade

            – To settle surplus population from Europe

            – Social Darwinism (To civilize Africans)

            – Missionaries appealed for protection.                                                           (2 x 1=2mks)

7.         – 1920                                                                                                                          (1 x 1=1mk)

8.         – Luhya                                                                                                                        (1 x 1=1mk)

9.         – To create a settlement for whites

            – To produce raw materials for British industries

            – To check Indian immigration to Kenya

            – To raise income to meet administrative costs

            – To raise income to cover the cost of railway construction

            – Wanted to deploit the un used land.                                                                                    (1 x 1=1mk)

10.       – Shallow curriculum (Three R’s)

            – It only prepared African to become European servants (technical)              

            – Missionary schools were few and poorly equipped/staffed.                                    (2 x 1=2mks)

11.       – Harry Thuku.                                                                                                            (1 x 1=1mk)

12.       – Member of NALGSA, KIGWU, KFRTU

            – He was a leader of different trade unions (VP of NALGSA, secretary-general of KIGWU and a secretary of KFRTU)

            – He organized Mombasa dock workers strike

            – he wrote articles in Britain, about Kenyan workers

            – He attended international trade union meetings

            – He helped formation trade unions in Uganda & Tanzania.                          (2 x 1=2mks)

13.       – Love

            – Peace

            – Unity                                                                                                             (2 x 1=2mks)

14.       – Leadership wrangles

            – Political interference

            – Inadequate funds

            – Unqualified personnel’s (Trainers)

            – Low quality facilities

            – Low morale/ motivation leading to poaching of players.                             (2 x 1=2mks)

15.       – To train power

            – To promote research

            – To induct new technology

            – Loaning the Jua kali

            – To create savings for small scale industries.                                                 (1 x 1=1mk)

16.       – Mp’s represent interests of their people

– Parliament make laws to govern the people

– Mp’s act as watchdogs over the governments spending

– It creates statutory bodies to provide services to the people

– It reviews the constitution

– It discusses matters of national & international importance e.g. citizenship            2 x 1=2mks)

17.       – City council

            – Municipal

            – Country

            – Urban/ area council

            – Town                                                                                                             (2 x 1=2mks)

                                                            SECTION B

18.       a)         – Spread of iron technology to other Kenyan communities

– Cultural interactions between the Bantu and other Kenyan communities

– Displacement of some communities

– Increase in inter community trade

– Increase warfare

– Led to population increase in areas where they settled

– The Bantu being farmers spread the knowledge of agriculture.

– It led to intermarriage.                                                                                  3 x 1=3mks)

b)         – The family was the basic social unit headed by a man

            – Several related families formed a clan

            – At puberty boys and girls were initiated

            – There was division of labour

            – They believed in an ancestral spirits

            – They had many ceremonies marked with dances

            – They were polygamous but exogamous

            – They had different related languages e.g. Somali,gahima etc.         (Any 6 x 2=12mks)

19.       a)         – Zanzibar was loyal to him

– Good soils for agriculture

– To control Indian ocean trade

– To control East Africa from near

– Zanzibar had natural harbors

– Pleasant climate and fresh waters                                                     (3 x 1=3mks)

            b)         – It was financed by Arabs

– Traders moved in caravan

– East Africa exported ivory, skin & slaves

– East Africa imported guns, daggers, etc

– Arabs and Swahili acted as middlemen

– Exchange was conducted through barter

– Arabs and Swahili traveled to collect goods from the interior

– Sultan by Zanzibar offered security to traders

– Coastal towns acted as markets

– Indian Banyans offered loans to traders later

– Traders came and left as dictated by monsoon winds.                    (Any 6 x 2 =12mks)

20.       a)         – Kenya highlands were reserved for whites only

– Indians to elect five legco members

– Settlers demand for self-government was denied

– Racial segregation onto be abolished

– African interests to be considered

– Colonial secretary to control Kenyan affairs

– Africans to be represented by a missionary

– Settlers to retain majority seats in legco (18seats)                            (5 x 1=5mks)

            b)         – Africans became landless (alienation)

                        – African movement were curtailed

                        – Agricultural production in reserves reduced

                        – Overcrowding in African reserves

                        – Africans were forced to work in European farms and homes

                        – African poverty led to nationalism

                        – Europeans migration & settlement led to white highlands

                        – Asians were denied the right to own land therefore engaged in urban businesses

                        – Indians supported Africans in their nationalism                               (Any 5 x 2=10mks)

                                    SECTION B          

21.       a)         – Return of alienated land

                        – Abolition of taxation

                        – Africa’s representation in the legco

                        – Improved African’s education (Free primary education)

                        – Abolition of kipande law

                        – Title deed for African land owners

                        – Rejection of proposed East African federation

                        – Release of Harry Thuku.                                                                   (5 x 1=5mks)

            b)         – They started by Africans educated in mission schools and churches

                        – They were led by Africans

                        – They practiced African cultural practices e.g. polygamy, female circumcision etc

                        – They worked with political associations against colonization

                        – Followers were mainly from rural areas

                        – They were poorly equipped and organized.                                     (5 x 2=10mks)

                                                            SECTION C          

22.       a)        – Responsibility to protect life

                        – Allow others to worship freely

                        – Not to enslave others

                        – Not to discriminate against others

                        – Allowing others to assemble and associate freely

                                    (Any 3 x 1=3mks)

  • – Constitution

– National language

– Education

– Fair distribution of resources

– One president

– Games and sports

– Social and economic interactions

– Employment opportunities

– National motto

– Urbanization

– Symbols of national unity

– National activities and holidays

– Mass media                                                                                       (6 x 2=12mks)

23.       a)         – Lack of public confidence

            – Political pressure

            – Lack of financial independence

            – Partial and unqualified staff

            – Ignorance and illiteracy of the voters

            – Insecurity of the staff personnel’s and potential voters (Internally Displaced People)

                                                                                                                        (5 x 2=10mks)

b)         – Advice and assist the president

            – Discuss matters of national and international importance

            – Design and explain government policies

            – Discuss and prepare the budget

            – Participate in legislation

            – Supervise ministries

            – Perform duties delegated by the president.                                      (5 x 2=10mks)

24.       a)         – In- charge of a district

– Represent president in the district

– Implement government policies and programmes

– Coordinate development activities in the district

– Maintain law and order

– Flood & famine operations

– Link people with the government

– Chair district liquor Licensing Board

– Administer district revenue

– Coordinate government departments and N.G.O’s in the district

            b)         – Poor terms/salaries

– Corruptin

– Political interference

– Job insecurity

– Inadequate funds for policies implementations

– Long government procedures (Bureacracy)

– Nepotism and incompetence

– Tribalism.                                                                                          (5 x 2=10mks)

NYAHURURU DISTRICT JOINT EVALUATION TEST – 2010

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A.

1.         –           Its cheap

            –           Its widespread

            –           Quickest way to get information

            –           Provide in formation on other sources/ supplement others

            –           Detailed in cultural matters, in migration, language.                          (Any 1 x 1=1mk)

2.         –           Started agriculture

–           Permanent settlement (houses)

–           Microlithic tools (light, sharp and different tools)

–           Developed government

–           Developed religion

–           Advanced language

–           Advanced crafts like basketry, pottery and weaving

–           Body decorations                                                                                (Any 2 x 1=2mks)

3.         –           Far distance to their farms

–           Wastage of labour and time

–           Under-utilisation of land

–           Discouraged selective breeding

–           Spread of animal pests and diseases                                                   (Any 1 x 1=1mk)

4.         –           Britain

–           France

–           Portugal

–           Spain                                                                                                   (Any 2 x 1=2mks)

5.         –           Rural- Urban migration

–           Unemployment

–           Traffic jams

–           Crimes and immorality

–           Street families

–           Development of slums

–           Poor sanitation and diseases outbreak.                                               (Any 1 x 1=1mk)

6.         –           Decentralization of economy

–           Consent of the people

–           Free and regular elections

–           Control of abuse of power

–           Political tolerance

–           Transparency and accountability

–           Freedom of speech and expression

–           Rule of law/Equality

–           Open and accountable mass media.                                        (Any 1 x 1=1mk)

7.         –           Right to associate with others

–           Right to express themselves

–           Right of thought and opinion

–           Right to contribute towards community development.                      (Any 2 x 1=2mks)

8.         –           Atomic theory                                                                                                 (1 x 1=1mk)

9.         –           Duties and rights of citizens

–           Distribution of powers among the arms of government

–           Duties and composition of the executive

–           Composition, functions and powers of parliament

–           Composition, functions and powers of Judiciary.                              (Any 2 x 1=2mks)

10.       –           Signed Bisandugu treaty for friendship

–           Approached the British against the French.                                       (Any 1 x 1=1mk)

11.       –           Africans were excluded from colonial administration

12.       –           Europeans dominated senior government positions

–           Africans were subjected to oppressive laws

–           Mass economic exploitation of Africans

–           Puppet chiefs were appointed in decentralized societies.                   (Any 2 x 1=2mks)

13.       –           Paris peace treaty/Versailles treaty.                                                                (1 x 1=1mk)

14.       –           Lead to the death of the myth of European superiority/ promoted nationalism

–           Many Africans died in the war

–           There was change of sex roles

–           Africans fought against each other during the war.                           (Any 2 x 1=2mks)

15.       –           For the newly formed states not to join any power block.                             (1 x 1=1mk)

16.       –           Coup de etats

–           Ethnic conflicts

–           Ideological difference between leaders

–           Neocolonialism

–           Dictatorship                                                                                        (Any 2 x 1=1mk)

17.       –           The congress party.                                                                             (1 x 1=1mk)

18.       a)         – Faster than roads due to jams                                                                                  

                        – Cheaper than road

            – Carry bulky goods

            – Economy of space/shared traffic

            – Fewer accidents compared to roads

            – Less pollution                                                                                   (Any 3 x 1=3mks)

b)         – Availability of indigenous crops and animals e.g. barley, goats, sheep, grapes.

– Fertile lands on river basins e.g. Tigris and Euphrates

– Water for irrigation- basin and shad of types

– Invention of farming tools e.g. seed drill, ox drawn plough

– Demand for food (growing population)

– Transport system (animal and water)

– Dykes to control floods

– Invention of writing (records)

– Slave labour (cheap)

– Storage facilities (public granaries)

– Towns created markets e.g. Babylon and Ur

– Leaders like Namurabi/political stability

– Seasons and farming calendar                                                          (Any 6 x 2=12mks)

19.       a)         -Trade with Mesopotamia

            – Bantus migration to W.Africa, central and S.Africa

            – Travelers and messengers spread the art by giving or receiving gifts of iron

            –  Spread through warfare

            – Intermarriages between clans and communities

            – Development of agriculture created market for tools.                      (Any 5 x 1=5mks)

  • – Lack of skilled labour

– High poverty levels

– Stiff competition with developed nations for markets

– Huge foreign debts

– Low technology

– Poor transport

– Monopoly by multinational companies

– Unexploited/ underexploited Amazon basin                                    (Any 5 x 2=10mks)

20.       a)         – Agriculture provided food to the population

            – Centralized government with few disputes

            – Trade with Portuguese

            – Guns from E. African coasts armed their army

            – Alliances with Portuguese explorers

            – Weak neighbours offered little external threat                                 (Any 5 x 1=5mks)

b)         -It consisted of Kumasi and Oyoko clans 35 miles radius

            – It was made up of Kumasi, Juaben, Bekinai, Kokofo, Insuta, Manipor, each headed by

             Omanihenes

– Asante-hene had a golden stool and Omani henes each a black stool to signify their powers

– They attended annual Odwira ceremony in Kumasi to:

                        – celebrate Asante unity

                        – solve disbutes

                        – pay loyalty to Asante hene

                        – Honor the dead

– Omani henes – paid tributes

                        – declared war/peace with each other

– Each state had a standing army under omanihene but Asante army was under Asantehenes deputy (manpohene).                                                  (Any 5 x 2=10mks)

21.       a)         – External attacks from Bunyoro, Kedhive Ismael

– Wanted European weapons to expand his army

– Wanted western education and Christianity

– To increase his prestige and promote his position

– Wanted to trade with Europeans

– Protection from internal enemies

– Feared to face European might like other resisters.                          (Any 5 x 1=5mks)

b)         – Lozi lost independence to the British

            – Christianity spread among the Lozi

            – Lewanika retained his position as chief

            – traditional practices were abolished

            – Lewanika ruled under a British resident

            – B.S.A.C exploited minerals in N.Rhodesia

            – His sons acquired western education.

            – Lewanika lost control over land to the British                                 (Any 5 x 2=10mks)

                                                SECTION C                           

22.       a)         – Held public rallies and protects

            – Published books, articles etc

            – Used non violent means e.g. dialogue

            – Joined U.G.C.C and formed C.P.P

            – Composed songs and slogans

            – Attended and hosted Pan African conferences

            – United Ghanaian nationalists.                                                          (Any 3 x 1=3mks

  • – Arrests and imprisonment of leaders- Mandela, Sobukua

– Torture and harassment of protester – Steve, Biko

– Violence unleashed on demonstrators- sharp villemassaure

            – Government used Divide and rule- Black homelands

            – Political parties were banned e.g. A.N.C

            – Inadequate finances and resources to nationalists

            – Strong and resourceful apartheid government

            – Some countries refused to give economic suctions to S. Africa

            – Censorship of press/media                                                                (Any 6 x 2=12mks)

23.       a)         – Kenyatta

            – Kwame nkuruma

            – Sedor senghor

            – Nandi Asikiwe

            – Kwegir Aggrey                                                                                 (Any 3 x 1=3mks)

  • – Has liberalized trade

– Has opened boarders

– Good environment for investment

– Harmonized banking

– Improved industrialization

– Promoted agriculture and food security

– Maximum utilization of resources

– Good governance and human rights

– Created employment to many                                                          (Any 6 x 2=12mks)

24.       a)         – Check excess by the executive

            -Budgetary role

            – Legislative role

            – Make treaties

            – Senate appoint senior civil servants

            – Appoint commissions for inquiry to national crisis

            – Linkage role

            – Terminate role                                                                                   (Any 5 x 1=5mks)

  • – Head of state

– Chief executive

– Chief legislature –He veto bills

– Chief diplomat

– Commander in chief of U.S.A army

– Head of his party

– National voice of U.S.A people

– Protector of peace- He intervened in disasters, riots, emergencies etc

NAME:…………………………………………………INDEX ………………..…..DATE……..…

SCHOOL:………………………………………………SIGNATURE………………………………

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERMENT

PAPER 1

(Theory)

JULY/AUGUST 2010

TIME: 2½ HOURS

JOINT INTER-SCHOOLS EVALUTION TEST (JISET)

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education 2010

      INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES.

  • This paper consists of three sections: A, B and C.                                          
  • Answer ALL the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C
  • Answers to all the questions must be written on the answers sheets provided.

SECTION A (25MARKS) Answer ALL the questions in this section on the answer sheets provided.

  1. Identify two ways used by archaeologists in Kenya to locate an archaeological site.                                                                                                                                          (2mks)
  2. Name two sub-tribes of the Mijikenda                                                               (2mks)
  3. Name the basic political unit of the Bantu in the pre-colonial period         (1mk)
  4. State two religious functions of the orkoiyot  among the Nandi during the pre- colonial period                                                                                                             (2mks)
  5. Identify one natural factor that facilitated the coming of the Arabs to the Kenyan coast                                                                                                                     (1mk)
  6. State one way in which the freed slaves promoted the spread of Christianity in Kenya.                                                                                                                       (1mk)
  7. Give two terms of the Devonshire White paper of 1923.                                  (2mks)
  8. Give one term of the Anglo-German agreement of 1890                                    (1mk)
  9. Name the first African to be appointed  minister in 1954 in Kenya                  (1mk)
  10. State two characteristics of early political organizations established in Kenya before 1939                                                                                                                 (2mks)
  11. State the MAIN reason why the Kenya African Democratic Union was formed in 1960                                                                                                                       (1mk)
  12. Identify two political challenges the former president Moi experienced during his era between 1982 and 1991.                                                                              (2mks)
  13. State one way in which the Kenyan constitution promotes national unity     (1mk)
  14. Give two ways through which conflicts can  be resolved peacefully                (2mks)
  15. Identify two non-military functions of the Kenya Armed Forces                    (2mks)
  16. Give one function of the Judicial Service Commission.                                     (1mk)
  17. Identify one type of government expenditure in Kenya                                     (1mk)

SECTION B (45MARKS) Answer any three questions from this section on the answer sheets provided.   

  1. What factors influenced Seyyid Said’s decision to transfer his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar?                                                                                                   (3mks)

b) Describe the effects of long distance trade in Kenya during the 19th century                                                                                                                                       (12mks)

  1. a) Give three reasons why  the British used direct rule in administering most parts of Kenya                                                                                                              (3mks)

b) Why did the Imperial British East Africa Company rule come to an end in 1895?     (12mks)

  1. a) What were the reasons for the construction of the Uganda railway during the Colonial period?                                                                                                           (3 mks)

(b) Explain six effects of the construction of the Kenya –Uganda railway                                                                                                                                                 (12mks)

  1. a) State three provisions  of the Lyttelton constitution of 1954                 (3mks)

b) Explain the role played by the African Elected Members Organization (AEMO) in the struggle for independence in Kenya up to 1963.                             (12mks)

SECTION C (30MARKS) Answer any two questions from this section on the answer sheets provided.

  1.  a) Identify five symbols of national unity in Kenya                                    (5mks)

b) Discuss the steps that have been taken by the Kenyan government to promote national integration since independence                                                               (10mks)

  1. a) Give five reasons why parliamentary elections are held regularly in Kenya                                                                                                                                                   (5mks)

b) Explain five factors that may interfere with free and fair elections in Kenya.                                                                                                                                                 (10mks)

  1. a) What is the composition of the cabinet in Kenya?                                      (3mks)

b) Explain six functions of the civil service in Kenya                                     (12mks)

NAME:…………………………………………………INDEX ………………..…..DATE……..…

SCHOOL:………………………………………………SIGNATURE………………………………

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERMENT

PAPER 2

(Theory)

JULY/AUGUST 2010

TIME: 2½ HOURS

JOINT INTER-SCHOOLS EVALUTION TEST (JISET)

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education 2010

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES.

  • This paper consists of three sections: A, B and C.                                           
  • Answer ALL the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C
  • Answers to all the questions must be written on the answer sheets provided.
  • This paper consists of four printed pages; candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the pages are printed as indicated and no questions are missing

SECTION A (25 MARKS) Answer All question in this section on the answer sheets provided

  1. What is the main reason for studying social history                                          (1mk)
  2. Give  one reason why oral tradition is an important source of history and government                                                                                                                    (1mk)
  3. Identify two categories of  tools made during the old stone age period           (2mks)
  4. State the independent theory about the origin and spread of agriculture        (1mk)
  5. What two man – made factors influenced the development of early agriculture in Egypt                                                                                                                          (2mks)
  6. How did the Trans – Atlantic trade lead to the eventual colonization of West Africa by European powers in the 19th century?                                               (2mks)
  7. State two limitations of canal transport                                                            (2mks)
  8. State the main disadvantage of wind as an early source of energy                   (1mk)
  9. Mention two contributions of Louis Pasteur in the field of medicine             (2mks)
  10. Give  two ways through which trade contributed to the rise of Asante Kingdom during the 19th century                                                                                       (2mks)
  11. State one practice that characterizes pure democracy                                      (1mk)
  12. State any two economic privileges which were enjoyed by the assimilated Africans in the four communes of Senegal                                                                  (2mks)
  13. State the main reason why the 1945 Manchester Pan – African Congress was a landmark in African history                                                                            (1mk)
  14. What event prompted the United States of America to join the first world war in 1917?                                                                                                                      (1mk)
  15. Name one member of the common wealth from Africa that is not a former colony of Britain                                                                                                               (1 mk)
  16. State the main function of the civil service in India.                                     (1mk)
  17. Identify two dominant political parties represented in the U.S congress    (2 mks)

SECTION B (45MARKS)

Answer any three questions from this section on the answer sheets provided.

  1. a) Identify three scientific methods used  to date historical events and materials                                                                                                                                               (3mks)

b) Describe the process by which archaeologists reconstruct the human past activities and experiences                                                                            (12mks)

  1. a) State three features of Athens as an early urban center                       (3mks)

b) Explain six problems facing Johannesburg city                                     (12mks)

  1. a) Give three reasons why the Odwira festival in  the ancient kingdom of Asante was important                                                                                                            (3mks)

b) Describe the social organization of Asante kingdom in the 19th century                                                                                                                                               (12mks)

  1. a) Identify five challenges which European colonialists faced as they established their rule in Africa                                                                                        (5mks)

b) Explain five reforms that were introduced by the German administration after the Majimaji uprising.                                                                                  (10mks)

SECTION C   (30MARKS) Answer any two questions from this section on the answer sheets provided

  1. a) Describe the structure of the French colonial administration in West Africa                                                                                                                                                  (5mks)

b) Explain five effects of the use of indirect rule by the British in Northern Nigeria                                                                                                                                          (10mks)

  1.  a) Give three reasons why the United States of America (U.S.A.) did not  join the first world war until 1917                                                                             (3mks)

      b) Explain six factors that enabled the allied power to win the Second World War                                                                                                                                      (12mks)

  1. a) Mention five members of the new East African community                  (5mks)

b) Explain the achievements of the common market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA)                                                                                                              (10mks)

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

JULY / AUGUST 2010

JOINT INTER-SCHOOLS EVALUATION TEST (JISET)

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (25MARKS)           

  1. Identify two ways used by archaeologists in Kenya to locate an  archaeological site                                                                                                                                          (2mks)
    1. Looking for areas where faulting or erosion has occurred exposing some remains
    1. Finding a small part of an early settlement on the surface
    1. Looking for sites mentioned in historical documents or oral narratives
    1. Archaeologists may use their long experience and skills to identify the site
    1. During cultivation and building constructions, workers may accidentally expose ancient objects               Any 2×1 = 2marks
  2. Name two sub-tribes of the Mijikenga                                                               (2mks)
  3. Jibana
  4. Digo
  5. Rabai
  6. Chonyi
  7. Duruma
  8. Kauma
  9. Giriama
  10. Ribe
  11. Kambe                    Any 2×1 = 2marks
  12. Name the basic political unit of the Bantu in the pre-colonial period               (1mk)
  13. The clan                                            1×1 = 1mark
  14. State two religious functions of the orkoiyot  among the Nandi during the pre- colonial period                                                                                            (2mks) 
  15. He presided over religious  ceremonies / acted as priest
  16. Blessed warriors before they went to war
  17. He foretold the  future / acted as a prophet
  18. He was a rain maker
  19. He was a medicine  man   Any 2×1 = 2marks
  20. Identify one natural factor that facilitated the coming of the Arabs to the Kenyan coast                                                                                                                     (1mk)
  21. The monsoon winds
  22. Deep natural harbours along the Kenyan Coast                Any 1×1 = 1mark
  23. State one way in which the freed slaves promoted the spread of Christianity in Kenya.                                                                                                                       (1mk)
  24. They were trained as catechists and helped to spread Christianity among fellow Africans
  25. They were involved in charity work e.g. helping the  poor, the sick and orphans hence enabled the missionaries to win the hearts of the Africans

                                                                                                                        Any 1×1 = 1mark

  1. Give two terms of the Devonshire White paper of 1923.                                (2mks)
  2. The  Kenyan highlands were exclusively reserved for white settlers
  3. The interests of the Africans were to be Paramount to those of immigrants races if there was a conflict
  4. A missionary would be nominated to the Legco to represent the interests of the Africans
  5. The  colonial secretary would exercise strict control over the affairs of the colony
  6. Racial segregation in all the residential areas plus restrictions on immigration were abolished
  7. The Indians would elect five members to the Legco, not on a common roll but on a communal roll.                                                              Any 2×1 = 2marks
  8. Give one term of the Anglo-German agreement of 1890                                   (1mk)
  9. German officials recognized Uganda as a British sphere of influence
  10. Germany abandoned her claim over the Witu enclave in exchange for Heligoland with the British
  11. The Sultan of Zanzibar retained the 16 km Coastal strip Any 1×1 = 1mark
  12. Name the first African to be appointed  minister in 1954 in Kenya                  (1mk)
  13. Beneah Ohanga     1×1 = 1mark
  14. State two characteristics of early political organizations established in Kenya before 1939                                                                                                                 (2mks)
  15. They were led mission – educated young men e.g. Harry Thuku
  16. They were ethnic / tribal based
  17. They addressed similar grievances e.g. land alienation, force labour, taxation e.t.c
  18. They demanded for better living conditions for Africans rather than demand for political independence.             Any 2×1 = 2marks
  19. State the MAIN reason why the Kenya African Democratic Union was formed in 1960                                                                                                                       (1mk)
  20. It wanted to protect and promote the interests of minority ethnic communities in Kenya against Kikuyu and Luo dominance in the political arena                                                                     1×1 = 1mark
  21. Identify two political challenges the former president Moi experienced during his era between 1982 and 1991.                                                                            (2mks)
  22. In 1982 there was an attempted military coup by a section of the Air Force
  23. The assassination of Robert Ouko
  24. The clamour for multi – party democracy                             Any 2×1 = 2marks
  25. State one way in which the Kenyan constitution promotes national unity 1mk)
  26. It ensures equal opportunities to all Kenyans
  27. It provides protection to individuals against any form of discrimination
  28. It provides for a unitary  system of government
  29. All Kenyans are subjected to the same constitution of law  Any 1×1 = 1mark
  30. Give two ways through which conflicts can  be resolved peacefully            (2mks)
  31. Diplomacy / negotiation
  32. Arbitration
  33. Litigation
  34. Mediation
  35. Legislation / parliament passes laws to control conflict  Any 2×1 = 2 marks
  36. Identify two non-military functions of the Kenya Armed Force                       (2mks)
  37. Participating in development projects e.g. building roads, bridges e.t.c
  38. Entertaining the public and foreign guests during public holidays
  39. Providing emergency relief services during disaster e.g. floods, accidents or locust invasion                                                                 Any 2×1 = 2marks
  40. Give one function of the Judicial Service Commission.                                  (1mk)
  41. To appoint the registrar and deputy registrar of the High count
  42. Advise the president when appointing the count of appeal and high count judges
  43. It is involved in the remuneration and disciplining member of the lower judiciary.
  44. Appoints the senior resident magistrate and other senior officers to the judicial department

                                                                                                                                    Any 1×1 = 1mark

  1. Identify one type of government expenditure in Kenya                                (1mk)
  2. Capital expenditure / money set aside for new development projects
  3. Recurrent expenditure / money used to sustain and maintain / existing facilities                                                                                            Any 1×1 = 1mark

SECTION B (45MARKS)           

  1. a) What factors influenced Seyyid Said’s decision to transfer his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar                                                                                           (3mks)
  2. Zanzibar supported him during  the war with Mazrui in Mombasa
  3. It had a deep water harbour
  4. It had clean water
  5. Its position was convenient for trade with Mombasa
  6. It had fertile soils for cultivation of cloves
  7. He wanted to use Zanzibar to effectively control the East African Coast
  8. Zanzibar was easier to defend                                           Any 3×1 = 3marks

b) Describe the effects of long distance trade in Kenya during the 19th century                                                                                                                                 (12mks)

  1. It stimulated trade at local levels as goods were exchanged between communities living near the major trade routes
  2. Trade activities enhanced good relations between Kenyan communities
  3. There was cultural interaction and people copied other peoples culture e.g. Swahili and Arab culture
  4. Foreign goods spread to many parts of Kenya
  5. The Sultan of Zanzibar spread his influence in the interior of Kenya through trade
  6. Some traders became rich e.g. chief Kivoi and Ngonya of the Agiriama
  7. Introduction of money economy in Kenya
  8. New crops spread from the coast to other parts of the country
  9. Islam spread along the trade routes into many parts of the country
  10. Slave trading activities intensified leading to increased human suffering
  11. Trade centres developed into towns                                  Any 6×2 = 12 marks
  12.  
  13. a) Give three reasons why the British used direct rule in administering most parts of Kenya                                                                                                                          (3mks)
  14. To ensure effective control over the Africans
  15. Britian desired to control the economy of Kenya to maximize profits
  16. The indigenous institutions / political institutions based on local chiefs had been destroyed during the British occupation of Kenya
  17. Most Kenyan communities had resisted British occupation of Kenya hence the British feared results
  18. Direct rule was one of the most effective ways of exercising the Berlin Conference  stipulations                                                    Any 3×1 = 3marks

b) Why did the Imperial British East Africa Company rule come to an end in 1895?                                                                                                                      (12mks)

  1. Lack of funds to undertake its tasks
  2. Rivalry from the German company for the  control of the region
  3. Hostility and attacks by the local people
  4. Lack of enough personnel to administer the colony / lack of experienced administrators
  5. Lack of proper co-ordination between the headquarters and the company representatives in Kenya
  6. Lack of good means of transport to facilitate the co-ordination of their activities
  7. Tropical diseases and unfavorable climate
  8. Language barrier                                                               Any 6×2 = 12marks
  9. a) What were the reasons for the construction of the Uganda railway during the Colonial period                                                                                                              (3mks) 
  10. To establish  effective control over the British East Africa
  11. To facilitate maximum economic exploitation of the region
  12. To stop slave trade and promote legitimate trade
  13. To facilitate  the  movement of troops  and government administration into the interior parts of the protectorate
  14. To link Uganda with the Coast and the outside world
  15. To make it possible for Britain to effectively protect her strategic interest in the region e.g. Uganda which was  the source of river Nile

                                                                                                                        Any 3×1 = 3marks

(b) Explain six effects of the construction of the Kenya –Uganda railway                                                                                                                                           (12mks)

  1. The Indians settled in Kenya and set up shops (Dukawallas)
  2. The railway opened up the interior and made transport easy
  3. It led to growth of towns along the railway line e.g. Voi, Nairobi / led to urbanization
  4. It eased the movement of troops and administrators to the interior  making administration easy
  5. African land was alienated for railway construction
  6. It provided employment opportunities for a number of Africans, Indians and Europeans
  7. It facilitated the spread of Christianity in Kenya
  8. It stimulated economic development of Kenya through the settlement of white settlers
  9. It became a source of revenue to the colonial government

                                                                                                                        Any 6×2 = 12marks

  1. a) State  three provisions  of the Lyttelton constitution of 1954                   (3mks)
  2. The Executive council was replaced by a muiti – racial council of ministers
  3. Eight African members of the Legco could be elected in the election of 1956-1957
  4. Certain property qualification and other educational requirements were specified for African candidates
  5. There were separate electoral rolls for whites, Asians and Africans
  6. Europeans were given more seats in the Legco e.g. 14 Europeans, 8 Africans, 3 Hindus, 3 Muslims and 1 Arab
  7. There were 29 electoral   members as opposed to 30 nominated members

                                                                                                                        Any 3×1 = 3marks

b) Explain the role played by the African Elected Members Organization (AEMO) in the struggle for independence in Kenya up to 1963.                            (12mks)

  1. They formed a pressure group to demand for greater political rights for Africans
  2. They formed the core team which pressurized for independence
  3. They  made known the grievances of the Africans in international fora and networked with other African nationalists elsewhere e.g. Ghana and Nigeria to hasten the achievement of independence in Kenya
  4. They fought for the release of Jomo Kenyatta and other imprisoned / detained African nationalists / demanded for an end to the state of emergency
  5. They educated and created awareness among the masses to the nationalist struggle
  6. They popularized Kenyatta and made him be accepted as the nationalist  hero
  7. They took part in the formulation of the independence constitution

                                                                         Any 6×2 = 12marks

SECTION C (30MARKS)

  1. a) Identify five symbols of national unity in Kenya                                        (5mks)
  2. National flag – signifies one  nation
  3. National award
  4. National anthem
  5. Loyalty pledge
  6. Court of arms

                                                                                                                                    5×1 = 5marks

b) Discuss the steps that have been taken by the Kenyan government to promote national integration since independence                                                         (10mks)

  1. Development of national symbols e.g. flag, anthem  etc
  2. Declaring Kiswahili a national language
  3. Promotion of Harambe spirit which unites all Kenyans and promotes a sense of belonging
  4. Introduction of The Nyayo philosophy of peace, love and liberty
  5. Use of one constitution which promotes equality of all Kenyans before the law
  6. Promotion of games, sports and cultural activities within the general public and in leaning institutions
  7. Abolition of ethnic organizations and groupings
  8. Promotion of a National Public Service where civil servants can serve anywhere in the country

                                                                                                             Any 5×2 = 10marks

  1. a) Give five reasons why parliamentary elections are held regularly in Kenya                                                                                                                                                   (5mks)
  2. In order to give the citizens the chance to choose leaders whom they have confidence in
  3. To enable sitting MPs to be responsive to the development needs of the electorate
  4. It is a constitutional requirement / it is stipulated in the constitution
  5. In order to give citizens the opportunity to exercise their constitutional rights of participating in the democratic process
  6. To inject new blood into parliament and government
  7. They help to generate new ideas by offering alternative ways of running the government  through different political parties manifesto

                                                                                                                        Any 5×1 = marks

    b) Explain five factors that may interfere with free and fair elections in Kenya.                                                                                                                                       (10mks)

  1. Inadequate civil education where voters are not sensitive on their right to vote
  2. Illiteracy – some Kenyans are illiterate and cannot be  able to mark ballot papers
  3. Ethnic tendencies and allegiance leads to bias of voters
  4. Party loyalties also lead to voting on party lines and not on merit.
  5. Harassment of voters by rival groups / intimidation of voters / election violence
  6. Incompetent election officials
  7. Inaccessibility of polling stations
  8. Communication problem between the headquarters and the polling station
  9. Corruption of candidates and their supporters
  10. Use of negative propaganda by party leaders and supporters
  11. Gender insensitivity
  12. Use and misuse of mass media
  13. External interference e.g. support of a party by a foreign country or organization

                                                                                                                        Any 5×2 = 10marks

  1. a) What is the composition of the cabinet in Kenya?                                  (3mks)
  2. The president
  3. The vice president
  4. The prime minister
  5. Ministers
  6. The Head of civil service

                                                                                                      Any 3×1 = 3marks

b) Explain six functions of the civil service in Kenya                                     (12mks)

  1. It implements those programmes / policies that the government of the day wants to accomplish
  2. They interpret government policies to the people
  3. They  act as a link between the people and the government
  4. Senior civil servants advises the ministers on the matters of policy and also prepare answers for the questions asked in parliament
  5. They offer continuity in the government since they are more permanent
  6. They maintain law and order e.g. provincial administration
  7. They collect government revenue and also account for government expenditure
  8. They keep and maintain government record which are vital to government operations

                                                                                                                        Any 6×2 = 12marks.

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2

JULY / AUGUST 2010

JOINT INTER-SCHOOLS EVALUATION TEST (JISET)

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1. What is the main reason for studying social history?                                     (1mk)

(i) In order to understand and appreciate peoples’ practices, religious beliefs and tabooS.                                                                                                        1×1 = (1mark)

  1. Give  one reason why oral tradition is an important source of history and government                                                                                                            (1mk)
    1. Enables historians to obtain facts handed down from one generation to the other in the absence of the sources
    1. It’s a rich form of entertainment by using songs, folktales, stories, proverbs / employs captivating methods to relay  information

                                                                                                                  Any 1×1 = 1mark

  1. Identify two categories of  tools made during the old stone age period       (2mks)
    1. Oldowan (pebble) tools found at Olduvai Gorge
    1.      Acheulian tools found at St. Acheul – France.        2×1 = 2marks
  2. State the independent theory about the origin and spread of agriculture                                                                                                                                                             (1mk)
    1. Agriculture developed independently in different areas of the world like Asia, Africa, Europe and America, and spread from one region to another

                                                                                                                  1×1 = 1mark

  1. What two man – made factors influenced the development of early agriculture in Egypt                                                                                                                    (2mks)  
    1. Improved tool making e.g. ox drawn plough
    1. Use of Shadoof irrigation
    1. Building of storage facilities
    1. Their knowledge of weather forecast helped farmers to plan for the seasons

                                                                                                      Any 2×1 = 2 marks                        

  1. How did the Trans – Atlantic trade lead to the eventual colonization of West Africa by European powers in the 19th century?                                       (2mks)
    1. African societies were weakened by slave trade  hence could not resist European colonization
    1. During the trade, Europeans learnt of the immense wealth for European exploitation
    1. When slave trade was eventually abolished Europeans introduced legitimate trade which they used as a reason to remain in West Africa.

                                                                                                      Any 2×1 = 2marks

  1. State two limitations of canal transport                                                            (2mks)
    1. Very expensive to construct and maintain
    1.  Needs constant dredging / cleaning
    1. Not suitable where the bedrock is permeable
    1. Requires heavy traffic to justify its construction

                                                                                                      Any 2×1 = 2marks

  1. State the main disadvantage of wind as an early source of energy             (1mk)
    1. Wind relies entirely on nature hence not reliable        1×1 = 1mark
  2. Mention two contributions of Louis Pasteur in the field of medicine          (2mks)
    1. He discovered the process of pasteurization of liquid food e.g. milk
    1. Discovered that bacteria (microbes) causes diseases
    1. He also discovered the cures for rabies, anthrax and snake bites

                                                                                          Any 2×1 = 2marks

  1. Give  two ways through which trade contributed to the rise of the Asante Kingdom during the 19th century                                                                                      (2mks)
    1. Acquired weapons used to expand the kingdom
    1. Wealth from trade boosted the growth of the Kingdom
    1. Rulers used wealth to reward loyal rulers
    1. Rulers conquered other territories in search of trade goods

                                                                                                      Any 2×1 = 2marks

  1. State one practice that characterizes pure democracy                       (1mk)
    1. Referendum – votes by adult voters through ballot
    1. Initiative – people initiate legislation for endorsement
    1. Recall – elected officials can be removed by voting
    1. Plebiscite – direct vote by entire population

                                                                                                                  1×1 = 1mark

  1. State any two economic privileges which were enjoyed by the assimilated Africans in the four communes of Senegal                                                                     (2mks)
    1. They were exempted from forced labour
    1. They were exempted from paying taxes
    1. They were allowed to work (employed) in France

                                                                                                      Any 2×1 = 2marks

  1. State the main reason why the 1945 Manchester Pan – African Congress was a landmark in African history                                                                   (1mk)
    1. It was attended by the leading African nationalists from the African continent e.g. Kamuzu, Banda of Malawi, Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Julius Nyerere of Tanzania,Dr Nnandi Azikiwe  of Nigeria hence nationalist struggle was boosted

                                                                                                                  1×1 = 1mark

  1. What event prompted the United States of America to join the first world war in 1917?                                                                                                                      (1mk)
    1. Germany’s declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare and the subsequent sinking of the ‘Sussex’ – a British ship ferrying American passengers

                                                                                                                  1×1 = 1mark

  1. Name one member of the common wealth from Africa  that is not a former colony of Britain                                                                                                             (1mk)
    1. Togo
    1. Mozambique
    1. Cameroon

                                                                                                                  Any 1×1 = 1mark                                                                        

  1. State the main function of the civil service in India.                                      (1mk)
    1. To implement government policy

                                                                                                                  1×1 = 1mark

  1. Identify two dominant political parties represented in the U.S congress (2mks)
    1. Republican party
    1. Democratic party

                                                                                                                  2×1 = 2marks

SECTION B (45MARKS)

  1. a) Identify three scientific methods used  to date historical events and materials                                                                                                                                               (3mks)
    1. Chemical dating method e.g. carbon 14 potassium argon
    1. Geogical period
    1. Genetics

                                                                                                                  3×1 = 3marks

b) Describe the process by which archaeologists reconstruct the human past activities and experiences                                                                                       (12mks)

  1. They carry out extensive research on possible archaeological sites
    1. Once sites are allocated by use of research, vision, construction / farming, they install equipment for excavation of fossils and artifacts
    1. Materials excavated are sorted and analyzed in order to make historical  conclusions
    1. Different dating methods are employed to determine the age of fossils and artifacts
    1. Analyzed information is formally recorded for further editing
    1. Information is recorded for purposes of reference and conclusion

                                                                                                   6×2 = 12marks

  1. a) State three features of Athens as an early urban center                           (3mks)
    1. The public buildings included public baths, gymnasiusms, the market (Agora) mud houses.
    1. The inhabitants were socially stratified into four classes
    1. The urban centre relied on commerce, industry and mining as a means of livelihood
    1. There was poor drainage leading to outbreak of diseases like cholera                                                 Any 3×1 = 3marks

b) Explain six problems facing Johannesburg city                                         (12mks)

  1. High rate of unemployment
  2. Inadequate housing leading to slums
  3. Inadequate social services like schools and health facilities
  4. Environmental pollution due to poor garbage disposal
  5. High rate of HIV / AIDS infection
  6. Presence of a high number of street families
  7. High rate of rural – urban migration
  8. High rate of crime e.g. robbery, rape, drug abuse
  9. Congestion on roads, due to heavy traffic
  10. Poor drainage due to poor planning                         Any 6×2 = 12 marks
  11. a) Give three reasons why the Odwira festival in ancient kingdom of Asante was important                                                                                                                          (3mks) 
    1. It promoted unity of the people
    1. It brought the provincial kings together to pledge loyalty to the Asantehene
    1. It provided an  opportunity for the kings to solve / settle disputes
    1. It provided an opportunity for the kings to honour the dead

  Any 3×1 = 3marks

b) Describe the social organization of Asante kingdom in the 19th century (12mks)

  1. The communities spoke the Akan  language
  2. They were organized into clans
  3. Inter – clan marriage was prohibited
  4. Inheritance and kinship system was matrilineal
  5. The golden stool bound the community together
  6. They had annual cultural festival (ordwira) held at Kumasi to honour the dead ancestors
  7. They were polytheists but had one supreme god called Nyawe
  8. The ancestors mediated  between the gods and the people
  9. The kings were regarded as semi – divine beings
  10. The society was stratified – divided in social classes

                                                                                                      Any 6×2 = 12marks

  1. a) Identify five challenges which European colonialists faced as they established their rule in Africa                                                                                    (5mks)
  2. They were attacked by tropical diseases
  3. Hostility from some African communities
  4. Poor means of transport and communication
  5. Shortage of medicine and food
  6. Difficult terrain
  7. Lack of common language between Africans and Europeans

                                                                                                         Any 5×1 = 5marks

b) Explain five reforms that were introduced by the German administration after the Majimaji uprising.                                                                                            (10mks)

  1. Communal cotton growing was stopped and Africans were encouraged to plant their own cotton and get profit from it
  2. Forced labour for settler farms was abolished
  3. Corporal punishment was forbidden and those settlers who mistreated their workers were punished
  4. Better educational and medical services for Africans were introduced
  5. Africans were involved in administration of the region as Akidas and Jumbes
  6. The new governors censured newspaper that supported settlers against Africans
  7. A new governor who was sympathetic to the cause of Africans was brought
  8. A colonial department of the German government was formed in 1907 to closely investigate the affairs of German East African company
  1. Extra taxation of Africans was rejected by the new governor
  2. Kiswahili was accepted as the official language
  3. Colonial administration in Tanganyika was tailored to suit the Africans

                                                                                                      Any 5×2 = 10marks

SECTION C   (30MARKS)

  1. a) Describe the structure of the French colonial administration in West Africa                                                                                                                                                  (5mks)
  2. The French colonies formed the federation of French West Africa
  3. The governor general based in Dakar was in charge of the federation but was answerable to the French minister for colonies in Paris
  4. The governor was assisted by the Lieutenant in charge of constituent colonies
  5. Each colony was divided into units called cercles each headed by a commandant de cercle
  6. A cercle was further divided into small districts headed by chief de subdivision
  7. Below the  chief de subdivision were chief de cantons in charge of locations
  8. Below the chief de canton were chiefs de village in charge of sub locations

                                                                                                            Any 5×2 = 10marks

b) Explain five effects of the use of indirect rule by the British in Northern Nigeria                                                                                                                                    (10mks)

  1. African chiefs became wealthier than the rest of the people because they were paid for their services
  2. It helped to preserve African cultures because the British did not interfere with the Africans way of life
  3. It led to abolition of slavery and slave trade in Northern Nigeria
  4. The British abolished the Fulani  systems of taxation and replaced it with a single tax levied in each village
  5. It led to retention of Islamic law sharia in the North making the area lag behind
  6. The British modified the previous  system of administration thus making the tradititional African rulers lose their independence
  7. Modern facilities like schools and hospitals spread in South Nigeria
  8. Emirs backed  by the British had more powers than before
  9. It led to the rise of nationalism because educated Africans were ignored in indirect rule and were not happy

                                                                                                          Any 5×2 = 10marks

  1. a) Give three reasons why the United States of America (U.S.A.) did not  join the first world war until 1917                                                                             (3mks)
  2. She did not want to get involved in European affairs as demanded by the monroe doctrine
  3. American feared that the war would be fought in America because of the presence of the German population and other European nationalities
  4. America interest had not been interfered with / had commercial relations with both opposing camps
  5. She feared revolt by her citizens of Germany origin

                                                                                                            Any 3×1 = 3marks

b) Explain six factors that enabled the allied power to win the Second World War                                                                                                                                (12mks)

  1. Germany’s inability to effectively control her expansive territories and some turned against her and fought alongside Allies
  2. The USA entry into the war on the side of the Allies after the Japanese attack of Pearl harbour base
  3. Allied powers had better arms than the Axis powers e.g. the atomic bomb
  4. The German forces were overstretched by fighting war on many fronts
  5. The Allies had more supporters than the Axis powers who remained with just few supporters
  6. The U.S.S.R recovered from her losses, re armed and attacked Germany when it was least expected
  7. The Allied forces controlled the North sea and blocked the German forces

                                                                                                      Any 6×2 = 12marks

  1. a) Mention five members of the new East African community                     (5mks)
  2. Kenya
  3. Uganda
  4. Tanzania
  5. Burundi
  6. Rwanda                                                                                    5×1 = 5marks

b) Explain the achievements of the common market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA)                                                                                              (10mks)

  1. It has led to liberalized trade
  2. It has led to a unified custom network between states
  3. It has led to improved  transport and communication network
  4. Has encouraged growth of the private sector through a  legal framework protection
  5. Provides room for greater industrial productivity
  6. Provides a large and varied agricultural market
  7. Generated employment for many people
  8. It encourages good governance, accountability and respect for human rights
  9. Members benefit from a more harmonized and widened competitive market
  10. Has led to harmonization of macro – Economic and monetary policy in the region

                                                                                                          Any 5×2 = 5 marks