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HISTORY PAPER 2 PAST KCSE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FROM 1996-2011

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 1 1996

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. Give two functions of the council of elders among the Akamba during the pre –colonial period.(2mks)
  2. State two factors which made it possible for the Arab traders to come to the Kenya coast before 1500.(2mks)
  3. Identify one contribution of John Krapf to the spread of Christianity in Kenya during the nineteenth century.(2mks)
  4. Name the company which administered Kenya on behalf of the British government up to 1895(1mks)
  5. Identify two factors which enabled the white settlers to establish farms in the Kenya Highlands during the colonial period.(2mks)
  6. Give two factors which led to the establishment of urban centres in Kenya during the colonial period.(2mks)
  7. State two objectives of the Kikuyu Central Association (KCA)
  8. Identify two ways in which the trade union movement contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya.
  9. State two results of the development of railway transport in Kenya during the colonial period.(2mks)
  10. Name two African nationalist parties whose leaders attended the Lancaster House Conference.  (2mks)
  11. Give two reasons why the District Focus for Rural Development was established in Kenya.(2mks)
  12. Name two parastatal organizations in Kenya that fall under the ministry of Transport and Communication.                        (2mks)
  13. What is the main function of opposition parties in Kenya?  (1mk)
  14. Identify one type of direct tax through which the Kenya government raises its revenue.  (1mk)
  15. Which provision in the Kenya constitution protects the wealth of individuals in the country? (1mk)

Section B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section in the Answer Booklet provided.

1.         a)         What factors made the cushites migrate into Kenya during the

pre – colonial period? (10mks)

      b)         Explain five results of the migration of the cushites into Kenya

during the pre-colonial period.  (10 mks)

2.         a)         Why were the Portuguese able to conquer the Kenyan coast

during the sixteenth century? (5mks)

            b)         Explain six factors which led to the collapse of the protuguese rule

on the Kenyan coast by the end of the seventeenth century. (10mks)

 3.        a)         Outline five reasons why the Nandi resisted the imposition of

            British colonial rule over their territory. (5mks)

b)         Discuss the factors which led to the defeat on the Nandi resistance

by the British colonial rule over their territory.           (10mks)

4.         a)         What three factors have facilitated the formation of many political

parties in Kenya since 1991? (3mks)

  • Explain six changes which have taken place in Kenya as a result

of the introduction of multi-party democracy since 1991? (12mks)

SECTION C (30marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the Answer Booklet provided

5.         a)         What are the constitutional duties of the president of Kenya? (3mks)

            b)         Explain six factors which have promoted national unity in

Kenya since 1963. (12mks)

6.         a)         State three functions of the police force in Kenya.    (3mks)

            b)         Describe six duties performed by provincial commissioners

 in Kenya. (12mks)

7.         a)         Identify three functions of the Attorney General of Kenya. (3mks)

            b)         Describe the structure of the court system in Kenya.  (12mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 2 1996

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. Identify two sources of information which historians use to write the History of Africa (2mks)
  2. List two economic activities of early man during the stone Age period (2mks)
  3. Give two factors which led to the early urbanization in Africa   (2mks)
  4. Identify one use of bronze in Ancient Benin                   (1mks)
  5. List two forms of communication used to send messages to distant places in the shortest possible time.                  (2mks)
  6. Name two main cash crops that were grown in North America during the Agrarian Revolution.  (2mks)
  7. a)   What is barter trade?               (1mk)

b)   Identify one limitation of using barter as a method of trade.  (1mk)

  • Give two functions of the Buganda traditional parliament  (2mks)
  • Name the Empire that was rule by Samori Toure during the European invasion of Africa  (1mk)
  • Give two ways through which Islam had spread in Africa by the nineteenth century  (2mks)
  • Name two systems of colonial administration which were used by the British to administer their colonies In Africa.  (2mks)
  • What is constitution?
  • In which two ways did the organization of Africa Unity (OAU) contribute to the liberation of the southern African countries? (2mks)
  • Name two agencies of the United Nations Organisation (UNO) which deal with the problem of health.

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

1.         a)         In what ways did the development of the steam engine contribute to

the growth of industries in Europe during the nineteenth century.(3mks)

            b)         Explain six factors which led to the emergence of Japan as an

industrial power after the second world war.(12mks)

2.         a)         What factors led to the development of trade between North Africa

and West Africa during the pre-colonial period?(3mks)

            b)         Describe the effects of the Trans – Saharan trade of West African

societies? (12mks).

3.         a)         Explain three ways in which Macadamised roads are an improvement

to road transport. (3mks)

            b)         What were the results of the development of railway transport in

Europe up the end of the Nineteenth century? (12mks)

 4.        a)         Why were African independent churches established? (3mks)
            b)         Explain six factors which promoted Christian missionary activities

in Africa during the nineteenth century. (12mks)

SECTION C (30 mks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

5.         a)         What methods did the European powers use to acquire colonies in

Africa?  (3mks)

b)         Explain six factors which influenced Lewanika of the Balozi to

collaborate with the British.(12mks)

6.         a)         Describe the factors which facilitated the application of the French

policy of assimilation in the four communes in Senegal.(3mks)

  • Discuss the effects of the French policy of assimilation in Senegal

(12 mks)

7.         a)         What is the role of the prime minister in Britain? (3mks)

b)         Explain six functions of the Federal Government of the United

States of America. (USA). (12mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 1 1997

SECTION A (25 mks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

1.         Give two factors which led to the migration and settlement of the Iteso

 into Kenya by 1800.

  • Identify two factors which encouraged the spread of Islam in Kenya by 1500.(2mks)
  • State two main reasons why the Oman rulers were interested in establishing their control overt the Kenyan coast.                   (2mks)
  • Give the main reasons why the British were able to conquer Kenya during the nineteenth century.  (1 mks)
  • State two reasons why Britain used the Imperial British East Africa Company to administer her possessions.                       (2mks)
  • State two ways through which the construction of the Uganda railway contributed to the development of settler farming in Kenya. (2mks)
  • Give one reason why Africans were denied equal educational opportunities with other races during the colonial period.  (1mks)
  • State two main roles that Thomas J. Mboya played in the Kenya African Union (KAU) (2 marks)
  • State two recommendations of the Lyttleton Consitution of 1954. (2mks)
  • What was the main ideological difference between KANU and KADU before independence in 1963? (1 mark)
  • State two ways thought which the government controls parastatals. (2mks)
  • Identify two causes of division within the opposition political parties in Kenya since 1992. (2 marks)
  • Identify three situations which may lead to a by – election in Kenya. (3mks)
  • Name the local government authority which is charged with the administration of rural areas in Kenya.   (1mks)

SECTION B (45 MKS)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

15.    a)      Explain the results of the migration and settlement of the Somali

into Kenya by 1800.   (7mks)

                b)     Describe the political organization in Kenya during the pre-colonial

period. (8 mks)

      16.    a)      Explain why Christian missionaries established mission stations

in Kenya during the colonial period.( 7mks)

                b)     What factors undermined Christian missionary activities in

Kenya during the nineteenth century? (8mks)

       17.   a)      Why did the British become interested in establishing their

control over Kenya during the second half of the nineteenth

century? (6mks)

               b)      Explain why some African communities resisted the

establishment of British rule in Kenya.

       18.    a)     What grievances did the African Nationalists have against the

colonial government in Kenya up to 1945? (3mks)

                 b)    Explain the political developments which hastened the achievement

of independence in Kenya between 1945 and 1963? (3mks)

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

            19.       a)         Why are parliamentary elections held regularly in Kenya? (3mks)

                        b)         Describe the stages through which a bill passes before it

becomes law. (12mks)

            20.       a)         Describe the structure of the Democratic party of Kenya (DI’)

                        b)         Explain the role of opposition parties in government and

nation building (10 mks)

            21.       a)         Describe the main provisions of the independence constitution

of Kenya.(3mks)

                        b)         Explain the circumstances which may force the government

to limit the rights and the freedoms of the individual. (12mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 2 1997

SECTION A (25 mks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answers booklet provided.

  1. Give two limitations of using written records as source of African History.  (2mks)
  2. Identify two aspects of the culture of the early man that had their origins in the late Stone Age.      (2mks)
  3. Identify two factors which favoured the development of crop growing in ancient Egypt. (2mks)
  4. Identify three uses of bronze in the kingdom of Benin   (3mks)
  5. Name two ways in which the railway transport contributed to the Agrarian revolution in Western Europe.(2mks)
  6. What was the main source of energy during the early period of the Industries revolution in Europe?
  7. State two ways through which slaves were obtained in West Africa during the Trans- Atlantic trade. (2 mks)
  8. Name one leader of the protestant reformation during the sixteenths century

(1 mk)

  • State two functions  of the Lukiko of the Buganda Kingdom during the pre- colonial rule  (2 mks)
  • State the main reason why Samori Toure fought the French during the nineteenth century (1 mk)
  • State two government policies which have  contributed to industrialization in India (2 mks)
  • Give two ways through which the  attainment of independence in Ghana contributed to liberation of other African countries from colonial rule

(2 mks)

  1.  Name two houses of the British Parliament (2 mks)
  2. What event prompted the United States of America (USA) to join the First World War in 1917? ( 1mk)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a) Describe two theories about the origin of human beings (4 mks)

(b) Discuss the benefits of the discovery of fire to the earlyman (11 mks)

  1. (a) Describe the working conditions of factory workers in Britain  during  the

industrial revolution (5 mks)

(b) What factors favoured the development of industries in Britain by 1850?

      (10 mks)

  1. (a) What factors contributed to the development of the Trans- Saharan Trade?

(8 mks)

(b) Describe the difficulties faced by the Trans- Saharan traders (7 mks)

  1. (a) Explain why Maji Maji uprising occurred between 1905 and 1907 (6 mks)

(b) What were the consequences of the Maji Maji uprising? (9 mks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a) What are the sources of the British Constitution? (3 mks)

(b) Describe how the government of the USSR was organized (12 mks)

  • (a) Why was the economic community of West African States (ECOWAS)

formed? (3 mks)

(b) Explain the factors that have undermined the activities of the organization

of African Unity (OAU) (12 mks)

  • (a) What were the differences between the British policy of indirect rule and

the French policy of assimilation? (3 mks)

(b) Explain why Fredrick Lugard used the policy of indirect rule to administer

Northern Nigeria. (12 mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 1 1998

SECTION A (25 mks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. Name two sources of the history of the Kenyan communities during the pre- colonial period (2 mks)
  2. In what two ways did the Kenyan communities interact during the pre- colonial period? (2 mks)
  3. Give the main reason why early visitors from Arabia came  to the Kenyan coast  before 1500 (1 mk)
  4. State two reasons why the Portuguese built Fort Jesus (2 mks)
  5. Give two reasons why the Agiriama were opposed to British Colonial rule

                  (2 mks)

  • State two terms of the Anglo- German Agreement of 1886 (2 mks)
  • Give one reason why the British colonial government encouraged while settlers to come to Kenya. (1 mk)
  • What was the main reason for the formation of the Ukamba members Association? (1 mk)
  • Give one reason for the establishment of independent churches in Kenya during the colonial period. (1 mk)
  • identify two reasons why Africans migrated to urban centers during the colonial period (2 mks)
  • Why was the nomination of Eliud Mathu  to the legislative council important?

            (1 mk)

  1. Give the main reason why African nationalists in Kenya formed the Kenya African democratic union (KADU) in 1960 (1 mk)
  2. Identify two national philosophies which have been used in Kenya since the attainment of independence. (2 mks)
  3. State one fundamental right of the individual which a person in prison is deprived of (2 mks)
  4. State the main function of the Kenya Army. (1 mk)
  5. Give two reasons why the chief’s baraza is important in Kenya. (2 mks)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a)        Describe the migration and settlement of the Eastern Bantu Speaking

communities into Kenya upto 1800.   (5 mks)

(b)        Discuss the results of the migration and settlement of the Eastern Bantu into Kenya by 1900 (10 mks)

  1. (a)        Why were the Portuguese able to control the Kenya coast between 1500

and 1700? (3 mks)

(b)        Describe the results of the Portuguese rule of the Kenya Coast (12 mks)

  1. (a)        What factors facilitated the establishment of British control over Kenya

during the nineteenth century? (5 mks)

(b)        Explain why the Nandi were able to sustain their resistance against the British for a long time (10 mks)

  • (a)        What factors undermined African nationalist activities in Kenya between

1939 and 1963? (7 mks)

(b)        Describe the role which African elected members of parliament played in the struggle for independence upto 1963. (8 mks)

SECTION C (30 Marks)

Answer two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  • (a)           How does the Kenya Government ensure that the rule of law is upheld in

the country? (3 mks)

         (b)           Describe the constitutional amendments which took place in Kenya between 1964 and 1992. (12 mks)

  • (a)           Explain the role  of the Electoral Commission of Kenya (7 mks)

         (b)           Describe the factors that are likely to interfere with free and fair elections in Kenya (8 mks)

  • (a)           Explain why the Kenya government prepares an annual budget. (10 mks)

         (b)           What measures does the Kenya government take to ensure that public funds are properly used? (5 mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 2 1998

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. Name two factors which influenced early man to begin domesticating animals?

(2 mks)

  1. Give two factors which influenced the development of urban centers in Ancient Greece (2 mks)
  2. State one way in which the Agrarian Revolution contributed to rural- urban migration in Europe. (1mk)
  3. Identify the main source of industrial energy in Europe from t6he mid twentieth century. (1 mk)
  4. State two scientific discoveries in the field of medicine in the nineteenth century

(2 mks)

  1.  Give one way in which poor transport network hinders industrialization in the Third World countries. (1 mk)
  2. Give one reason why the general agreement on tariffs and Trade (GATT) was established (1 mk)
  3. State two similarities between the African traditional belief in death and the Christian teaching on death. (2 mks)
  4. State two ways  through which Islam was spread in the  nineteenth century

(2 mks)

  1. State one way in which centralization of authority contributed to the growth of the Buganda Kingdom. (1 mk)
  2. Give two economic reasons which made European powers to scramble for African colonies.
  3. state the main contribution of religion in the Maji Maji uprising against German  rule in Southern Tanzania
  4. Define indirect rule as a policy that was used by the British to administer their colonies in Africa.  (1mk)
  5. Give two reasons why the Central  Powers were defeated in the first World war

(2 mks)

  1. State two methods which the international community used to hasten the attainment of majority rule in South Africa. (2 mks)
  2. Identify  two political challenges which Zaire has faced since independence

(2 mks)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. (a)        What factors led to the development of early Agriculture in India? (5 mks)

(b)        Explain the results of the development of early Agriculture in India

(10mks)

  1. (a)        In what ways did overseas colonies contribute to the expansion of

industries in Europe? (3 mks)

(b)        Discuss the problem which the European society faced as a result of 

industrialization (12 mks)

  1.  (a)       Describe the religious beliefs and practices of traditional Yoruba society

(b)        Explain the importance of religion among the Yoruba (10 mks)

  1. (a)        Describe the results  of the development  of railway transport during the

nineteenth century (5 mks)

(b)        Discuss ways through which the modern society has benefited from the development in telecommunications (10 mks)

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a)        What were the economic activities of the people of the Asante Empire?

(3 mks)

(b)        Describe the political organization of the Asante Empire during the

nineteenth century ( 12 mks)

  1. (a)        Explain why the Ancient regime in France had become unpopular by 1789

(5 mks)

(b)        Discuss the French system of government from 1871 (10 mks)

  1. (a)        Why was the United Nations Organization (UNO) formed? (5 mks)

(b)        Discuss the factors that have undermined the activities of the UNO

(10 mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 1 1999

SECTION A ( 25 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. What was the base of the political organization among the Cushites during the pre- colonial period? (1mk)
  2. Identify the two economic activities which the maasai acquired as a result of interacting with the Agikuyu during their settlement in Kenya (2 mks)
  3. What religious functions did the Orkoiyot of the Nandi perform during the pre- colonial period? (2 mks)
  4. Give two main factors which  influenced  the Abaluyia to become crop farmers by the beginning of the  nineteenth century (2 mks)
  5. Name two Bantu communities in Kenya whose ancestors settled in the Mount Elgon area before migrating to their present homeland. (2 mks)
  6. State two benefits of Portuguese rule over the coastal settlement (2 mks)
  7. Give two reasons why the British allowed the imperial British East Africa Company to administer their possession in East Africa during the nineteenth century. (2 mks)
  8. State two ways in which the Wanga Kingdom benefited from the collaboration between Nabongo Mumia and the British during the scramble (2 mks)
  9. Give two reasons  why the Uganda railway was built (2 mks)
  10. Identify one  institution which advised the government in Kenya in the administration of the colony during the early twentieth century (1 mk)
  11. State two features of the political organizations which were formed in Kenya before 1939 (2 mks)
  12. Give one reason why Africans who lived  in towns formed social welfare  organizations during the colonial period (1 mk)
  13. In what way did the Lennox – Boyd constitution contribute to the constitutional changes that led to the attainment of independence in Kenya? (1 mk)
  14. What is the difference between a civil and a criminal dispute? (1 mk)
  15. Name two major types of government expenditure (2 mks)
  16. State two functions of Prison in Kenya (2 mks)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. (a)        Why did the Bantu migrate from their coastal settlement at Shungwaya in

the sixteenth century? (3 mks)

(b)        Describe

(i)         The political and (6 mks)

(ii)        The social organization of the Mijikenda during the pre- colonial

period  (6 mks)

  1. (a)        Describe the characteristics of the coastal towns by 1500 (5 mks)

(b)        Explain five factors which led to the decline of the coastal towns after

1500    (10 mks)

  1. (a)        What factors encouraged the Akamba to participate in the long distance

trade during the nineteenth century? (5 mks)

(b)        Explain the effects of slave trade on the African communities in Kenya (10 mks)

  1. (a)        Why did Africans start independent schools in Kenya during the colonial

period?

(b)        Explain the contribution Ronald Gideon Ngala to the struggle for independence in Kenya (10 mks)

SECTION C (30 MKS)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a)        What actions do police officers in Kenya take from the time an offence is

committed up to the time judgement is passed? (5 mks)

(b)        Explain five factors which undermine the work of the police force in Kenya (10 mks)

  1. (a)        What are the benefits of the policy of District Focus for Rural

Development in Kenya? (5 mks)

(b)        Explain five functions of a provincial commissioner in Kenya (10 mks)

  1. (a)        What services are provided by county councils in Kenya? (5 mks)

(b)        How do county councils raise funds for their operations? (10 mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 2 1999

SECTION A (25 mks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. State two distinct characteristics of Homo Erectus (2 mks)
  2. State one main way in which the Agrarian revolution contributed to the development of urban centers in Europe (1mk)
  3. Give one main reason why trade union movements were formed in Europe during the nineteenth century (1 mk)
  4. Identify two scientific discoveries  during the nineteenth century which contributed to food preservation (2 mks)
  5. State  two inventions  during the eighteenth century which improved textile industry in Britain (2 mks)
  6. Give two ways  in which air transport has improved trade  between nations

(2 mks)

  1. Distinguish between barter and currency systems of trade (2 mks)
  2. (a) State the  role  played by the Tuaregs in the Trans- Saharan trade (1 mk)

(b) Identify two trade routes which connected trading centers in the Western Sudan and North Africa during the Trans-Saharan trade. (2 mks)

  1. Give the main aim of the United Nations Conference ob trade and development (UNCTAD) (1 mk)
  2. What two similar roles were played by priests in both Egyptian and Yoruba traditional religions? (2 mks)
  3. Give the main result of the translation of the Bible into different languages during the sixteenth century (1 mk)
  4. Give the main reason why the Golden stool was important for the Asante Empire (1 mk)
  5. Show two ways in which the industrial Revolution in Europe promoted European colonization of Africa. (2 mks)
  6. Name one organization  which has been  formed  by the organization of African  Unity (OAU)  member countries to  promote economic co- operation among Southern African countries (1 mk)
  7. Identify the main difference between membership into the house of Lords and the House of Commons in Britain (2 mks)
  8. State one problem which faced the league of Nations (1 mk)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a)        What things do archaeologists use to reconstruct the activities of people

who live in prehistoric time.

(b)        Explain five ways in which Homo Erectus attempted to improve his way of life?

  1. (a)        Describe the uses of gold in ancient Egypt

(b)        Explain how the discovery of iron in Africa affected people’s lives in the continent.

  1. (a)        What factors favoured the beginning of agriculture during the New Stone

Age?

 (b)       Explain six factors which promoted plantation farming in Europe during the Agrarian Revolution

  1.  (a)       Why were Christian’s missionary societies established in Europe?

(b)       Six factors which affected Christian missionary activities in Africa during the nineteenth century

  1. (a)        What were the economic activities of the Ndebele during the nineteenth

century?

(b)        Describe the political organization of the Ndebele during the pre- colonial period

  1. (a)        What factors led to the success of menelik of Ethiopia against the Italians

the battle of Adowa?

(b)        Describe the results of the battle of Adowa

  1. (a)        What role does the queen  of England play in relation to the British

government

(b)        Describe the functions of the British parliament

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 1 2000

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. State two ways in which the Akamba interacted  with the Agikuyu in the pre- colonial period (2 mks)
  2. Give two economic reasons why the cushites migrated from their original homeland into Kenya (2 mks)
  3. Identify the main reason why the Mijikenda lived in the kaya (1 mk)
  4. State two main factors which enabled traders from Arabia to come to the Kenyan coast before 1500 (2 mks)
  5. Give the main reason why most of the early urban centers along the Kenyan coast were built on islands. (1 mk)
  6. State two reasons why the Portuguese were able to conquer the coastal settlements by 1500. (2 mks)
  7. State two ways in which the introduction of Christianity undermined African culture in Kenya. (2 mks)
  8. Identify two methods which long distance traders used to acquire slaves during the nineteenth century. (2 mks)
  9. Identify one method which was used by the colonial administration to attract European settlers to Kenya. (1 mk)
  10. State one feature of the political Associations that were formed in Kenya between 1920 and 1939. (1 mk)
  11. Give two ways through which the colonial government controlled the migration of Africans to urban centers. (2 mks)
  12. State two objectives of education offered by the missionaries in Kenya during the colonial period. ( 2 mks)
  13. Identify one problem which independent schools faced during the colonial period. (1 mk)
  14. State one way in which the Kenya constitution promotes national unity. (1 mk)
  15. What main factor led to the split of the Forum for the Restoration of democracy (FORD) party in 1992? (1 mk)
  16. What is the main role of the Attorney General as an Ex- officio member of parliament of Kenya? (1 mk)
  17. Identify one main issue that is addressed in the national budget in Kenya. (1 mk)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a)        Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the plains Nilotes

into Kenya. (10 mks)

(b)        Describe the political organization of the Maasai during the pre- colonial

period. (5 mks)

  1. (a)        Describe the way of life of the people who lived in the coastal city states

by 1500. (7 mks)

(b)        Explain four factors which led to the decline of the coastal settlements

between 1500 and 1700. (8 mks)

  1. (a)        Describe five results of the collaboration between Mumia of the Wanga

and the British? (5 mks)

(b)        Explain five reasons why Britain was interested in establishing control over Kenya during the European scramble for East Africa. (10 mks)

  1. (a)        What five roles did the Kenya African Union (KAU) play in promoting

nationalist struggle in Kenya between 1944 and 1953? (5 mks)

(b)        Explain five constitutional changes which took place in Kenya between 1954 and 1963. (10 mks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

Answer tow questions from this section in the answers booklet provided

  1. (a)        What were the three features of the independence constitution of Kenya?

(3 mks)

(b)        Explain six powers that the constitution of Kenya gives to the president.

            (12 marks)

  1. (a)        Describe the process of electing the speaker of the National Assembly of

Kenya. (3 mks)

(b)        Explain six reasons why parliament is an important institution in Kenya. (12 mks)

  1. (a)        Describe three ways in which the judiciary ensures fairness in the

administration of justice in Kenya? (3 mks)

(b)        Explain six factors that may undermine the administration of justice in Kenya (12 mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 2 2000

SECTION A (25 mks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. Give two shortcomings of oral traditions as a source of History. (2 mks)
  2. State one characteristics of Homo Sapiens     (1 mk)
  3. Identify two similarities between early agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt.

(2 mks)

  1. State two characteristics of the  Macadamized roads (2 mks)
  2. Give one advantage of  drum beating as a form of communication over the use of smoke signals in Africa during the pre- colonial period (1 mk)
  3. State two objectives of international trade agreements. (1 mk)
  4. What is the difference between barter trade and trade in which currency is used as the medium of exchange? (2 mks)
  5. Identify two ways in which the Yoruba worshipped their gods (2 mks)
  6. State the main reason why the Independent churches movement started during the nineteenth century. (1 mk)
  7. Give two functions of the Kabaka of Buganda. (2 mks)
  8. State one economic factor which encouraged the Europeans to partition Africa during the nineteenth century. (1 mk)
  9. Give one reason why some African communities collaborated with the European  imperialists. (1 mark)
  10. Identify one way in which the rise of nationalism undermined the policy of assimilation in French West Africa. (1 mk)
  11. State two economic challenges which Tanzania  has faced since independence

(2 mks)

  1. Give the main reason why the league  of Nations was established in 1919 (1 mk)
  2. State one privilege which members of the British Parliament enjoy. (1 mk)
  3. Distinguish between a written and  an unwritten constitution (2 mks)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a)        What five factors influenced the development of early urban centers in

Africa? (5 mks)

(b)        Explain five consequences of urbanization on European communities during the nineteenth century. (10 mks)

  1. (a)        Why did the industrial revolution take place in Britain ahead of other

European countries? (7 mks)

(b)        Explain four advantage of the land tenure system in Britain (7 mks)

  1. (a)        What three factors have led  to the development of religious beliefs in

societies (3 mks)

(b)        Explain six factors that contributed to the spread of Christianity up to the thirteenth century A.D (12 mks)

  1. (a)        What five factors undermined the trans- Saharan trade? ( 5 mks)

(b)        Explain five ways in which West African communities benefited from the Trans- Saharan Trade. (10 mks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

Answer two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a)        Describe the social organization of the Shona during the Pre- colonial

period. (5 mks)

(b)        Explain the political organization of Mwene Mutapa Kingdom during the

pre- colonial period. (10mks)

  1. (a)        Why was the East African community formed? (3 mks)

(b)        Explain six factors that led to the collapse of East African community.

(12 mks)

  1. (a)        Describe the structure of the communist party in the union  of Soviet

Socialist Republics (USSR) (3 mks)

(b)        Discuss six criticisms that have been made against the communist party. (12 mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 1 2001

SECTION A (25 mks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. State two ways in which the Nandi and the Abaluyia communities interacted during the pre- colonial period. (2 mks)
  2. Give one reason why the Mijikenda community migrated from their settlement at Shungwaya during the pre- colonial period. (1 mk)
  3. Give two reasons why the council of elders among the Ameru was important before the establishment of colonial rule. (2 mks)
  4. What was the main significance of circumcision in some African traditional societies in Kenya? (1mk)
  5. Identify two factors that led to the spread of Islam along the Kenyan coast by sixteenth century. (2 mks)
  6. Give one reason why Seyyid Said took direct control of the settlements along the coast of Kenya in 1806. (1 mk)
  7. Identify two ways in which the Maasai benefited from their collaboration with the British. (2 mks)
  8. State two ways in which the colonial government acquired land for the European settlers in Kenya. (2 mks)
  9. Give two contributions of the independent schools in Kenya during the colonial period. (2 mks)
  10. State two duties of the British Governor in Kenya during the colonial period.

(2 mks)

  1. Give two ways in which the trade union movement contributed to nationalist struggle in Kenya. (2 mks)
  2. State one reason why the 1957 elections are important in the history of Kenya.

(1 mk)

  1. What major political change was introduced during the Limuru Conference of 1966? (1 mk)
  2. Identify one achievement of the District Focus for Rural Development strategy

(1 mk)

  1. Which organization is responsible for co-ordination of parliament elections in Kenya? (1 mk)
  2. Identify the main reason why suspected criminals are tried in a court of law.

(1 mk)

  1. Give one function of the prisons department in Kenya. (1 mk)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer any THREE questions from this section in answer booklet provided.

  1. (a)        Why did Christian missionaries come to Kenya in the nineteenth century?

(5 mks)

      (b)        Explain six results of the coming of Christian missionaries to Kenya.

(10 mks)

  1.  (a)       What five factors led to the migration of the Iteso from their original home 

in the Lake Turkana region to their present homeland? (5 mks)

(b)        Explain five effects of the migration and settlement of the Iteso in Kenya. (10 mks)

  1. (a)        Describe five common characteristics of the political parties which were

formed in Kenya after 1945. (5 mks)

(b)        Explain five roles of the political parties in the struggle for independence in Kenya between 1945 and 1963. (10 mks)

  1. (a)        In what five ways has the government attempted to preserve cultural

heritage in Kenya since independence? (5 mks)

(b)        Explain the role which the co-operative movement has played in promoting national development in Kenya since 1963. (10 mks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a)        Describe the composition of parliament in Kenya. (3 mks)

(b)        Explain six function of the speaker of the National Assemble in Kenya.

(12 mks)

  1. (a)        Describe the functions of the police force in Kenya. (7 mks)

(b)        What factors hinder the Kenya Police from performing their duties effectively? (8 mks)

  1. (a)        What are the stages brought which a bill passes before  it becomes law in

Kenya? (5 mks)

(b)        Explain five factors that promote national unity in Kenya. (10 mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 2 2001

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. What is oral tradition as a source of History? (1 mk)
  2. State the main function of the Golden stool in the Asante Empire during the pre- colonial period. (1 mk)
  3. State two uses of bronze in early Egypt. (2 mks)
  4. Identify one way in which invention of the wheel promoted early transport.

(1 mk)

  1. State two results of the translation of the bible into different European languages during the sixteenth century. (2 mks)
  2. Identify the main reason why the Egyptians buried the dead with their belongings (1 mk)
  3. Give two ways in which  Islam spread to Africa in the nineteenth century.(2 mks)
  4. Identify one way in which the industrial Revolution contributed to  colonization  of colonization of Africa by Europeans
  5. Give one factor which undermined European Company rule in Africa during the nineteenth century. (1 mk)
  6. State two reasons why indirect rule was unsuccessful in Southern Nigeria.  (2mks)
  7. Identify tow factors that undermined the effectiveness of the League of Nations. (2mks)
  8. State one advantage of a written constitution over an unwritten constitution.(1mk)
  9. Give two reasons why coal was used as the main source of industrial power in Britain during the industrial Revolution.
  10. State tow ways in which poor transport systems have contributed to food shortages in Africa.  (2mks)
  11. Identify one aim of the United Nations conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)     (1mk)
  12. State two features of the government of France in the twentieth century.
  13. Give the main political challenge that the Democratic republic of Congo (Zaire) has face since independence. (1 mk)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any THREE questions form this section in the answer booklet provided.

18. a)         Describe how the Trans – Sahara trade was organized   (8mks)

      b)         What problems did the trans- Saharan trader face?          (7mks)

19. a)         What factors led to the development of urban centres in Africa

during the pre-colonial period?                       (8mks)

            b)         Explain the social effects of urbanization in Europe during the

nineteenth century. (7mks)

      20. a)         Describe five factors that facilitated the development of agriculture

in America before 1800. (3mks)

            b)         Discuss the factors that led to the Agrarian Revolution in North

America.  (12mks)

21.       a)         Which scientific inventions of the twentieth century have led

to a reduction in death rates? (5mks)

  • Explain the positive impact of scientific inventions on industry.  (10mks)

SECTION C (30marks)

Answer any TWO questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

22.       a)         What factors enabled Samori Toure to resist French colonization

in West Africa (7mks)

            b)         Explain four results of the defeat of the Mandika by the French

in the nineteenth century.(8mks)

23.       a)         Why did the British use direct rule in Zimbabwe       (3mks)

            b)         Explain the effects of British rule in Zimbabwe.        (12mks)

24.       a)         Why was the United States of America (USA) reluctant to join

the First World war during the initial stage? (3 mks)

            b)         Describe the results of the Second World War. (12mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 1 2002

SECTION A (25mks)

Answer ALL the question in this section in the answer booklet provided.

1.         State one way in which the Abagusii and the Kipsigis interacted during

the pre-colonial period.                       (1mk)

2.         State two functions of the Council of Elders (Njui Ncheke) of the Ameru (2mks)

3.         A part from trade, give one reason why the Arabs migrated to the Kenyan

coast before 1500 A.D.

4.         State two factors which encouraged the Akamba to participate in the long

distance trade during the nineteenth century.(2mks)

5.         Give two reasons why Nabongo Mumia collaborated with the British (2mks)

6.         Identify one reason why Africans in Kenya were not allowed to grow

some cash crops before 1954.

7.         State two reasons why the Taita Hill Association was formed in 1939. (2mks)

8.         State one result of the establishment of independent in Kenya

during the colonial period.(2mks)

9.         Identify two negative consequences of urbanization in Kenya during

the colonial period.(2mks).

10.       Give two sources of revenue for the District Development Committees

in Kenya (2mks)

11.       State two ways which chiefs promote law and order in their locations. (2mks)

12.       Give one way through which the education system in Kenya promotes national

Unity (1 mark)

13.       Who chairs cabinet meetings in Kenya? (1 mark)

14.       What is contained in the government budget? (1 mark)

15.       Give the main role opposition parties in Kenya. (1 mark)

16.       Give the main functions of the Prisons Department in Kenya (1 mark)

17.       Identify two national philosophies used as development strategies in Kenya

            (2 mks)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. (a)        What were the results of the settlement of the luo in Kenya during the pre-

                        colonial period? (7 marks)

            (b)        Describe the socio- political organization of the Luo during the pre- colonial period (8 marks)

  1. (a)        Why were the Portuguese interested in establishing their control over the

                        Kenyan coast during the sixteenth century? (3 mks)

            (b)        Explain six effects of Portuguese role on the Kenyan coast (12 mks)

  • (a)        What economic reasons encouraged the British to colonise Kenya during

                        the nineteenth century? (3 mks)

            (b)        Explain six ways through which the colonial government promoted settler farming (12 mks)

  • (a)        What major reforms resulted from the Lyttelton Constitution of 1954 in

                        Kenya? (3 mks)

            (b)        Explain six ways through which Thomas Joseph Mboya contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya. (12 mks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

  • (a)        Describe the structure of the court system in Kenya (5 mks)

            (b)        Explain the functions of the high court in Kenya (3 mks)

  • (a)        Describe the process of preparing a bill before it is taken to parliament for

                        debate (3 marks)

            (b)        Explain six ways in which the Bill of Rights protests the rights of the

                        individual (12 marks)

  • (a)        What are the main sources of revenue for local Government Authorities in

                        Kenya?

            (b)        Explain six factors which undermine the performance of local authorities

                        (10 mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 2 2002

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet

  1. State one advantage of written materials as a source of history (1 mk)
  2. Give one characteristics of Homo erectus (1 mk)
  3. State one main limitation of barter trade during the Trans- Saharan Trade. (1 mk)
  4. State two duties of the priests in Yoruba traditional religion (2 mks)
  5. State one result of the invention  of the wheel in Mesopotamia (1 mk)
  6. Give one disadvantage of using coal as a source of industrial energy during the nineteenth century. (1 mk)
  7. State two factors that facilitated the growth of the Asante Kingdom (2 mks)
  8. Identify two features  of Early Greek city states (2 mks)
  9. Give two inventions that improved textile manufacturing industry in Britain in the eighteenth century. (2 mks)
  10. State one contribution of Joseph Lister in the field of medicine in the nineteenth century (1 mk)
  11. State two effects of the development of railway transport in the nineteenth century
  12. Give two methods that European powers used to occupy Africa during the nineteenth century. (2 mks)
  13. State two conditions that one had to fulfill in order to become fully assimilated in French West Africa.(2 mks)
  14. Give the main reason why the League of Nations was formed in 1919. (1 mk)
  15. State the main cause of the cold war (1 mk)
  16. Give two political developments in South Africa between 1990 and 1994 which led to peaceful introduction of majority rule in the country. (2 mks)
  17. State the main reason why the USSR adopted a one party system of government. (1 mk)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

  1. (a)        Describe three ways through which slaves were obtained  during the

Trans- Atlantic slaves trade

(b)        Explain six factors that led to the decline of the Trans- Atlantic trade

  1. (a)        What factors led to the industrialization in German in the 19th century?

(b)        Explain five results of the industrial Revolution in Europe during the 19th

century

  1. (a)        In what was are the teachings of Islam similar to those of Christianity

(b)        Explain the Christian church split during the 16th century

  1. (a)        What reasons led to the failure of Maji Maji rebellion in 1907

(b)        Explain five reforms that were introduced by the German administration after the Maji Maji uprising

  1. (a)        Why did the British use indirect rule to administer Northern Nigeria

(b)        Explain why the use of indirect rule in southern Nigeria was unsuccessful

  1. (a)        Describe three factors that enabled the allied powers to win the second

World War

(b)        Explain the results of the Second World War

  1. (a)        Describe the functions of the  president of the United States of America

(U.S.A)

(b)        Explain how the system of government of the U.S.A works

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 1 2003

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet

  1. State two disadvantages of relying on oral traditions as a source of history.

(2 mks)

  1. Give one way in which the knowledge of iron working helped  in the migration  of the Bantu (1 mk)
  2. State one reason why the government may limit the freedom of speech (1 mk)
  3. Identify one in which the monsoon winds led to the development of trade between the Kenyan coast and the outside world. (1 mk)
  4. State three economic benefits of the Oman rule along the Kenyan coast during the nineteenth century. (3 mks)
  5. State two ways through which mission stations promoted the spread of Christianity in Kenya. (2 mks)
  6. Give one way in which rural to rural migrations in Kenya contribute to national unity. (1 mk)
  7. State two ways in which the  colonial land  policies in Kenya undermined African farming (2 mks)
  8. State two demands the Kenya African Union (KAU) made to the colonial government in 1952. (2 mks)
  9. Give two reasons why independent schools were established in Kenya. (2 mks)
  10. State two provisions of the independence constitution of Kenya. (2 mks)
  11. Give one way in which a person may become a member of parliament in Kenya. (1 mk)
  12. State one contribution of the ‘Harambee’ movement to the development of health services in Kenya. (1 mk)
  13. Give two reasons why the district focus for Rural Development was adopted as a development strategy in Kenya. (2 mks)
  14. Give two factors which may undermine the effectiveness of the traffic police in Kenya. (2 mks)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a)        Outline the stages in the Portuguese  conquest  of the coastal towns up to

1510 (3 mks)

(b)        Explain six factors that led to the decline of the Portuguese rule on the

Kenyan coast. (12 mks)

  1. (a)        Give five reasons why Britain colonized Kenya. (5 mks)

(b)        Explain why Kenyan communities were defeated by the British during the

establishment of colonial rule. (10 mks)

  1. (a)        State three ways through which communities in Kenya interacted during

the pre- colonial period. (3 mks)

(b)        Describe the social organization of the Agikuyu during the pre- colonial period.

  1. (a)        What factors led to the development of multi- party democracy in Kenya

in the early 1990’s? (3 mks)

(b)        Explain how the existence of many parties has promoted democracy in Kenya. (12 mks)

SECTION C (30 Marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a) What is the composition of the cabinet in Kenya? (3 mks)

(b) Explain six functions of the cabinet in Kenya. (12 mks)

  1. (a) Identify three types of taxes paid by Kenyans to the government (3 mks)

(b) Explain six ways in which the government of Kenya uses its revenue (12 mks)

  1. (a) Describe five demands made  by trade  unionists in Kenya during the colonial

period. (5 mks)

(b) Explain the contribution of the trade union movement in the struggle for

     independence in Kenya. (10 mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 2 2003

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. Identify two ways in which early man used stone tools. (2 mks)
  2. Give two factors that influenced the growth of early urban centres in Africa.

(2 mks)

  1. State two disadvantages of using coal as a source of industrial energy (2 mks)
  2. Identify one advantage of barter as a method of exchange in the Trans- Saharan trade. (1 mk)
  3. Give two ways in which the agrarian in Revolution England affected the lives of small scale farmers?
  4. Identify two ways in which the Agrarian Revolution contributed to European expansion to Africa. (2 mks)
  5. State one reason why internal Trade Agreement are signed.  (1 mk)
  6. State two religious practices of the Ancient Egyptians. (2 mks)
  7. State two similarities between the Buganda and the Ndebele system of government in the 19th century. (2mks)
  8. Identify one way in which Africans reacted to European colonization of Africa.

(1 mk)

  1. State one way through which the Europeans maintained peace among themselves during the partition of Africa. (1 mk)
  2. Name two main political changes that have faced the Democratic Republic of Congo since independence. (2 mks)
  3. Give one function of the monarchy in Britain. (1 mk)
  4. State one advantage of a written constitution. (1 mk)
  5. State two ways in which the treaty of Versailles signed in 1919 affected Germany. (2 mks)
  6. Identify one leader who was a founder member of the non-aligned movement.

(1 mk)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a)        What were the advantage of the discovery of fire by the early man?

(3 mks)

(b)        Explain six ways in which agriculture changed the lives of early people. (12 mks)

  1. (a)        Give three developments that have taken place  in road transport systems

since 1750. (3 mks)

(b)        Explain six ways through which the invention of the railway speeded up industrialization in Europe. (12 mks)

  1. (a)        State three religious  practices of the Yoruba (3 mks)

(b)        Explain six effects of Christian missionary activities on Africans (12 mks)

  1. (a)        Describe the organization of the Trans- Atlantic Trade. (3 mks)

(b)        What were the results of the Trans- Atlantic Trade in West Africa?

(12 mks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a)        Give three reasons why Samori Toure resisted French colonization in

West Africa. (3 mks)

(b)        Explain six results of Samori Toure’s resistance against the French occupation in West Africa between 1882 and 1898. (12 mks)

  1. (a)        Give three reasons why the preferential Trade Area (PTA) was formed.

(3 mks)

(b)        Explain six challenges which Tanzania has faced since independence.

(12 mks)

  1. (a)        What are the features of stage government in the  United States of

America? (3 mks)

(b)        Explain six functions of the Federal government of the United States of America. (12 mks)

K.C.S.E 2004 HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PPAER 1

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

Answer all the questions in this section in answer booklet provided

  1. State two ways in which Kenyan communities interacted during the pre- colonial period (2 mks)
  2. Give two reasons for the migration of the Borana from Ethiopia into Kenya.

(2 mks)

  1. State two functions of the Laibon among the Maasai during pre- colonial period in Kenya. (2 mks)
  2. Identify one factor that facilitated contact between the Kenyan coast and the outside world by the end of the 16th Century. (1 mk)
  3. Give two methods used by Europeans to acquire territories in Kenya during the 19th century. (2 mks)
  4.  Identify the main feature of the system of education in Kenya during the colonial period. (2 mks)
  5. State one role of the civilians during the struggle for independence in Kenya.

(1 mk)

  1. Give two roles of welfare organizations in Kenya during the colonial period.

(2 mks)

  1. Identify one way through which colonial lands policies promoted settler agriculture in Kenya. (1 mk)
  2. Give the main reason why KANU refused to form a government after the 1961 election. (1 mk)
  3. Why was the independent constitution of 1963 known as a Majimbo constitution? (1 mk)
  4. State two demands made by the African Elected Members organization (AEMO) in 1957. (2 mks)
  5. Identify two political events which threatened the stability of Kenya between 1975 and 1978. (2 mks)
  6. State two problems that the co-operative movement in Kenya has faced since independence. (2 mks)
  7. Name the institution that controls government expenditure in Kenya. (1 mk)
  8. Give one function of the judiciary in Kenya. (1 mk)
  9. Who appoints a District Commissioner in Kenya? (1 mk)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a)        Why did the Bantu migrate from their original homeland? (5 mks)

(b)        Describe the political organization of the Akamba during the pre- colonial

period. (10 mks)

  1. (a)        What factors influenced Seyyid Said’s decision to transfer his capital to

Zanzibar. (3 mks)

(b)        Describe the effects of long distance trade in Kenya during the 19th century. (12 mks)

  1. (a)        Why did the Nandi resist British invasion of their territory between 1896 –

1905? (5 mks)

(b)        Explain five factors which enabled the Nandi to resist British invasion for along time. (10 mks)

  1. (a)        Why were Africans opposed to the British colonial rule between 1920-

1939?

(b)        Explain five methods used by African nationalists in Kenya in their struggle for independence. (10 mks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

  1.  (a)       Why are general election conducted in Kenya every five years. (3 mks)

 (b)       Describe the circumstances which may lead to by – election in Kenya.

(2 mks)

  1. (a)        Describe three practices that may interfere with national unity. (3 mks)

(b)        Discuss the factors that led to the introduction of many political parties in Kenya in 1992. (12 mks)

  1. (a)        What are the functions of the Armed Forces in Kenya? (5 mks)

(b)        Explain five ways of criminal activities in Kenya. (10 mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY PAPER 2 2004

Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C.

SECTION A

  1. Give one contribution of archeology to the study of History.           (1 mk)
  2. State two uses of fire by early man. (2 mks)
  3. Give two uses of Bronze in Mesopotamia. (2 mks)
  4. State two functions of early urban centers in Egypt. (2 mks)
  5.  Give two disadvantages of human transport. (1 mk)
  6. Give two contributions of the inventions of the steam to industry in the 18th century in Europe. (2 mks)
  7. State one advantage of the telephones as a means of communication. (1 mk)
  8. State two results of the construction of the Suez Canal. ( 2 mks)
  9. Identify tow problems that may hinder the effective operation of international Trade Agreements. (2 mks)
  10. Why was Ethiopia not colonized by the Europeans in the 19th century? (1mk)
  11. State one social reason for the coming of Europeans to Africa in the 19th Century. (1 mk)
  12. Give two functions of chiefs in Zimbabwe during the colonial period. (2 mks)
  13. Identify the role that the government convention people’s Party (CPP) played in the struggle for independence in China. (1 mk)
  14. State one aim of the Arusha Declaration in Tanzania. ( 1 mk)
  15. Identify one way in which a person may become a member of the House of Lords in Britain. (1 mk )
  16. Give one factor that led to the end of the cold war. (1 mk)
  17. State two reasons for the establishment of the United Nations Organization (UNO). (2 mks)

SECTION B

  1. (a) What made the early man to domesticate crops and animals? (3 mks)

            (b) Explain the causes of food shortages in the third world counties (12 mks)

  1. (a) Describe five religious practices of the Maya. (5 mks)

            (b) Discuss the importance of the religious among the Maya. (5 mks)

  • (a) What were the terms of the Berlin Conference for 1884- 1885? (5 mks)

            (b) Discuss the immediate results of the partition of African by Europeans.

                                                                                                                        (10 mks)

  • (a) What was the role of the Tuaregs in the trans- Saharan trade?     (3 mks)

            (b) Explain six effects of the trans-Saharan trade on the people of Western Sudan.

                                                                                                                        (12 mks)

SECTION C

Answer any TWO questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  • (a)        What were the economic activities of the Buganda during the pre- colonial

period? (3 mks)

            (b)        Describe the political organization of Buganda during the pre- colonial period. (12 mks)

  • (a)        What were the causes of the first World War ( 1914 – 1918) (5 mks)

            (b)        Discuss the results of the First World War (1914 – 1918) (10 mks)

  • (a)        Describe the functions of the council of ministers of the organization of

African Unity. (3 mks)

            (b)        Explain six achievement of the organization of African Unity (OAU) since its formation. (12 mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 1 2005

SECTION A (25 mks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. Name two pre- historic sites in Kenya. (2 mks)
  2. Identify the main economic activity of the Plain Nilotes during the pre- colonial period. (2 mk)
  3. Name one community in Kenya which played a leading role in the long distance trade. (1 mk)
  4. Identify one community in Kenya which had a centralized system of government in pre- colonial Kenya. (1 mk)
  5. Give two evidences which show that Chinese traders reached the  Kenyan coast before 1500 A.D. (2 mks)
  6. State the main reason for the coming of the Portuguese to the Kenyan coast in the 15th century. (1mk)
  7. State two problems which the imperial British East African Company had in the administration of the protectorate.
  8. Name the treaty which marked the colonial spheres of influence in East Africa in 1886. (1 mk)
  9. State two grievances of the Kikuyu Central Association (K.C.A) against the colonial government in Kenya. (2 mks)
  10. What was the main results of the Devonshire White Paper of 1923? (1 mk)
  11. Name two African leaders who were detained in 1952 at the declaration of a state of emergency. (2 mks)
  12. Identify two sources of government revenue in Kenya. (2 mks)
  13. Name two officers of a Municipal Council who are appointed by the public service commission. (2 mks)
  14. What is the main function of the Civil Service in Kenya? (1 mk)
  15. Give one reason why parliament is regarded as supreme in Kenya. (1mk)
  16. Give one way in which the constitution of Kenya guarantees the rule of law.

(1 mk)

  1. State two contributions of parastatal to the economic development of Kenya.

(2 mks)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1.   (a)      Give five reasons which led to the migration of the cushites from their

original homeland into Kenya during the pre- colonial period. (5 mks)

  (b)      Explain five results of the interactions between the Bantu and the cushites in Kenya during the pre- colonial period. (10 mks)

  1. (a)        What were the reason for the construction of the Kenya- Uganda railway

during the colonial period? (3 mks)

(b)        Explain six effects of the construction of the Kenya- Uganda railway during the colonial period? (3 mks)

  1. (a)        State three methods which were used by the British to establish their rule

in Kenya. (3 mks)

(b)        Describe the organization of the Central Government in Kenya during the colonial period. (12 mks)

  1. (a)        Why did the British use direct rule in administering most parts of Kenya?

(3 mks)

(b)        Explain six ways through which Ronald Ngala contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya. (12 mks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a)        Identify three types of local Authorities in Kenya. ( 3mks)

(b)        Explain the relationship between the central and local government in Kenya. (12 mks)

  1. (a)        Give three symbols of National Unity. (3 mks)

(b)        Explain six factors which undermine National Unity in Kenya. (12 mks)

  1. (a)        What are the functions of the Attorney General in Kenya? (3 mks)

(b)        Explain six responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen. (12 mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY & GOVERNMENT PAPER 2 2005

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided

1.         State one theory that explains the origin of early people                    (1 mk)

2.         Give two advantages of using the steam engine in the transport industry in the 19th

Century                                                                                               (2 mks)

3.         Give two factors which led to the growth of urban centers in Greece (2 mks)

4.         Identify one form of picture writing during the early civilizations    (1 mk)

5.         State two advantages of cinemas                                                       (2 mks)

6.         Give one importance of the Odwira festival in the ancient kingdom of Ashanti

                                                                                                                        (1 mk)

7.         Identify the main commodity from Africa in the Trans- Atlantic trade (1 mk)

8.         Identify two economic effects of industrial revolution in North America

                                                                                                                        (2 mks)

9.         Name two missionary societies which worked in West Africa in the 19th century

                                                                                                                        (2 mks)

10.       State one way in which European Nationalism contributed to colonization of

Africa                                                                                                  (1 mk)

11.       Identify two chartered companies which were used to administer European

colonial possessions in Africa                                                             (2 mks)

12.       Give one reason why the Shona supported the British during the Ndebele war of

1893                                                                                                    (1 mk)

13.       Name one political party that fought for independence in Ghana     (1 mk)

14.       Give two reasons why there were civil wars in the democratic republic of Congo

(DRC) soon after independence                                                         (2 mks)

15.       State two advantages of being a member of the commonwealth organization

16.       Name the type of constitution used in Britain                                    (1 mk)

17.       Give one disadvantages of a federal system of government  (1 mk)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provide

18.       (a) What were the stages in the development of tools by early people (3 mks)

            (b) Explain six ways through which the development of iron technology affected

     African communities in the pre- colonial period                (12 mks)

19.       (a) Give three classes of people in Hinduism                          (3 mks)

            (b) Explain six effects of the spread of Islam in Africa up to the end of the 19th

      century                                                                                          (12 mks)

20.       (a) What were the effects of using electricity in industries in Europe during the

                 19th century?                                                                                  (5 mks)

            (b) Explain five effects of scientific inventions on agricultural development in

     Europe during the 19th century                                          (10 mks)

21.       (a) Give three problems which European colonialists faced as they established

     their rule in Africa in the second half of the 19th century  (3 mks)

(b) What were the results of the collaboration between Lewanika of the Lozi and    

      the British in the 19th Century                                          (12 mks)

SECTION C (30 MKS)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

22.       (a)        State three privileges which were enjoyed by assimilated Africans  in the

four communes of Senegal                                                     (3 mks)

            (b)        Why did the French system of assimilation fail in the areas outside the

communes?                                                                             (12 mks)

23.       (a)        What were the results of the bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima in Japan

in 1945?                                                                                  (3 mks)

(b)        Explain six factors which contributed to the rise of Japan as an industrial power after the second world war                                            (12 mks)

24.       (a)        What are the functions of the security council of the united Nations 

(3 mks)

(b)        Explain six problems which the United Nations is facing in its efforts to maintain world peace                                                                  (12 mks)

HISTORY QUESTIONS PAPER 1 2006

1. Identify two sources of Kenyan history                                                     (2 mks)

2. Name one community in Kenya that belongs to the River Lake Nilotes   (1 mk)

3. State two economic activities of the Abagusii in Kenya during the pre- colonial period

                                                                                                                        (2 mks)

4. Give one reason which led to the decline of Gedi during the 15th century            (1 mk)

5. Name the type of constitution used in Kenya                                            (1mk)

6. Identify two peaceful ways of resolving conflicts                                     (2 mks)

7. What is direct democracy?                                                                         (1 mk)

8. Identify two development rights of children                                             (2 mks)

9. Name the document which contains the rights of citizens in Kenya          (1 mk)

10. Identify one method used by the British to administer Kenya colony between 1920

      and 1963                                                                                                   (1 mk)

11. State two ways through which Europeans settlers in Kenya were able to get labour

      force during the colonial period                                                                (2 mks)

12. Name two political parties which were formed in Kenya between 1960 and 1963

                                                                                                                        (2 mks)

13. Name one reason why an aspiring candidate for a parliamentary seat in Kenya must

      be nominated by apolitical party                                                               (1 mk)

14. Give two reasons why corruption is being discouraged in Kenya            (2 mks)

15. Identify one national philosophy adopted at independence to promote social justice in  

      Kenya                                                                                                        (1mk)

16. Name two types of local authorities in Kenya                                          (2 mks)

17. Give one example of indirect taxes in Kenya                                           (1 mk)

SECTION B (45 marks)

18        (a)        Why did the highlands Nilotes migrate from their original homeland

during the pre- colonial period?                                              (5 mks)

(b)        Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the highland Nilotes in Kenya                                                                                 (10 mks)

19.       (a)        What were the  activities of the imperial British East Africa company

(IBEA Co.) Between 1888 and 1895?                                   (5 mks)

(b)        Why did imperial British East Africa Company (IBEA co.) rule come to an end in 1895?                                                              (10 mks)

20        (a)        State five problems that faced the early political organizations in Kenya up

to 1939                                                                                    (5 mks)

(b)        Explain the role played by women in the struggle for independence in Kenya                                                                                             (10 mks)

21.       (a)        Give five political reasons that led to the colonization of Kenya by the

British during the 19th century                                                (5 mks)

(b)        What factors enabled Christian Missionaries to carry out their activities in Kenya by 1920?                                                                       (10 mks)

SECTION C (30 MKS)

22.       (a)        What five situations can make a registered voter to be denied the right to

vote in Kenya                                                                          (5 mks)

(b)        Explain the right to an accused person during trial in a court of law in Kenya                                                                                              (10 mks)

23.       (a)        What is the composition of the executive Arm of  government in Kenya 

(10 mks)

            (b)        Describe six functions of the Civil Service in Kenya             (12 mks)

24        (a)        What are the units of the Kenya Police Force?                      (5mks)

(b)        Explain five factors that make it difficult for the prison department in Kenyan to work effectively.                                                            (10 mks)

HISTORY PAPER 2 QUESTIONS 2006

SECTION A (25 MKS)

1.         Give one reason why Homo Habilis was referred to as ‘able’ man    (1mk)

2.         Identify one area in Africa where agriculture began.                         (1mk)

3.         Identify one type of trade.                                                                 (1 mk)

4.         Identify two improvements which were made on macadamized roads in the Nineteenth century.                                                                          (2mks)

5.         State two advantages of use of electricity in industries during the industrial Revolution                                                                                         (2mks)

6.         State the main contribution of the discovery of chloroform in the field of medicine.                                                                                              (1 mk)

7.         Identify two factors that led to the growth of Athens as an urban centre.

8.         Name two officials who assisted the ruler of the shona to administer the Kingdom.                                                                                                (2mks)

9.         What is the difference between the scramble and partition of Africa in the nineteenth century?                                                                             (2mks)

10.       Name one colony of British in West Africa                                       (1mk)

11.       Give one reason why the Africans in Tanganyika were against the use of Akindas by German colonial administrators.                                                (1mk)

12.       Identify two peaceful methods which the nationalists used in South Africa in the struggle for Independence.           

13        Give one reason why the United States of America (U.S.A) did not join the First World War until 1971.                                                             (1mk)

14.       Give the main reason for the failure of the League of Nations          (1mk)

15.       State two achievements of Pan-Africancism between 1945 and 1963. (2mks)

16.       State two political challenges that faced Tanzania during the rule of President Mwalimu Nyerere.                                                                         (2mks)

17.       Who is the head of Government in India?                                         (1 mark)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

18.       a)         What were the physical changes which occurred in early human beings as

they evolved  From ape –like creature to modern people?     (5mks)

b)         Described the way of life of Early Human beings during the Old Stone Age period.                                                                                  (10 mks)

19        a)         Give three factors which should be considered when sending a message.                                                                                                                (3mks)

            b)         Explain the effects of Telecommunications on modern society. (12mks)

20        a)         Give three reasons why Lobengula was defeat by the British in 1893?                                                                                                                    (3 mks)

            b)         What were the results of the British Ndebele war of 1893? (12mks)

21.       a)         What five reasons encouraged the nationalists in Mozambique to use

Armed struggle to attain independence.                                 (5mks)

b)         Describe the problems which undermined the activities of the nationalists in Mozambique.                                                                        (10 mks)         

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

22         a)        Give three ways through which trade contributed to the rise of Asante

Kingdom during the eighteenth century.                                (10mks)

b)        Describe the social organization of Asante Kingdom in the eighteenth century.                                                                               (12mks)

23.       a)         Give three categories of the Prime Ministries in Britain?      (3mks)

            b)         What are the duties of the prime Ministries in Britain?          (12 mks)

24        a)         Give three organs of Economic Community of West African States

(ECOWAS)                                                                            (3 marks)

b)         Give three organs of the Economic community of West African State

                        (ECOWAS) since its formations?                                           (12 mks)

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

Paper 1 Oct. /Nov .2007

2 ½ hours

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

1.         Give two reasons for studying Government.                                                  (2mks)

2.         State two advantages of the discovery of fire by Early Man.                                    (2mks)

3.         Name the dispersal area of the Eastern Bantu.                                               (1mk)

4.         State two duties of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi.                                      (2mks)

5.         Give the main reason why the rulers of Malindi welcomed the Portuguese in the 16th century.                                                                                                       (1mk)

6.         Give two factors which influenced Seyyid Said to develop agriculture in Zanzibar in the 19th Century.                                                                                         (2mks)

7.         Apart from the Nandi, name two other communities that resisted the establishment of colonial rule in Kenya.

8.         State the main duty of the Governor during the British colonial rule in Kenya                                                                                                                                             (1mk)

9.         State one reason why the colonial government established Local Native Councils in Kenya in 1924.                                                                                             (1mk)

10.       Identify two features of African farming in Kenya during the colonial period                                                                                                                                             (2mks)

11.       State one recommendation of the Lennox-Boyd constitution regarding the legislative Council in Kenya.                                                                          (1mk)

12.       Name one Ex-official Member of Parliament in Kenya.                                (1mk)

13.       Who was the fist vice president of independent Kenya                                 (1mk)

14.       State two ways through which a person can become a citizen of Kenya.      (2mks)

15.       State two ways in which poor leadership affects sporting activities in Kenya.                                                                                                                                             (2mks)

16.       State one type of government expenditure in Kenya.                                                (1 mk)

17.       Who gives assent to a parliamentary bill before it becomes law in Kenya?   (1mk)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

18.       a)         Give five reasons for the migration of the Luo from their original

homeland into Kenya.                                                                         (5mks)

b)         What were the social effects of the expansion of the Luo into Western Kenya?.                                                                                                                                                                                                     (10mks)

19.       a)         Identify five factors that led to the growth of town along the coast of

Kenya before the 19th Century.                                              (5mks)

b)         Describe the way of life in the Coastal towns of Kenya before the 19th Century.                                                                             (10mks)

20.       a)         give reasons why the British colonial government encouraged Europeans

to settle Kenya by 1939.                                                         (3mks)

            b)         Explain the effects of land alienation in Kenya during the colonial period.

                                                                                                                        (12mks)

21.       a)         Identify five methods that the colonial government used to discourage the

activities of the Mau Mau movement in Kenya.                     (5mks)

b)         Explain five reasons why the MauMau movement was able to last for a long time                                                                           (10mks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

22.       a)         Give three reasons that can make the parliament in Kenya to be dissolved. 

                                                                                                                        (3mks)

            b)         Explain six functions of the National assembly in Kenya.     (12mks)

23.       a)         Apart from the High Court, identify five other types of Courts in Kenya.

                                                                                                                        (5mks)

  • Why should there be separation of powers between the Legislature, Executive in Kenya?

24.       a)         State five functions of the Kenya police.                               (5mks)

            b)         Describe five duties performed by a District Commissioner in Kenya.                                                                                                                                 (10mks)

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2 OCT. / NOV. 2007

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

1.         Give two sources of information in history and government (2 mks)

2.         State two methods used by Early Man to find food during the Stone Age period.(2mks)

3.         Give the main reason why early agriculture developed in Egypt (1mks)

4.         Identify two early sources of energy.

5.         State one disadvantage of using a messenger to pass on information (1mk)

6.         State the main advantage of using air transport.        (1mk)

7.         Identify the main method of trade in Africa during the pre- colonial period.(1mk)

8.         Identify one reason that led to the decline of Meroe as an early urban centre.

9.         State the role of the ‘golden stool’ in the Asante Kingdom during the 19th century. (1mk)

10.       Identify the two European powers that acquired colonies in East Africa.(2mks)

11.       Give one reason why the Lozi collaborated with the British during the colonization of Africa. (1mks)

12.       Give two results of the French assimilation policy in Senegal. (2mks)

13.       Identify the immediate cause of the First World War.           (1mks)

14.       State the main reason why nationalism developed in Ghana during the colonial rule. (1mks)

15.       State two duties of the United Nations Secretariat. (2mks)

16.       Give two achievements of the commonwealth. (2mks)

17.       Identify two types of democracy.      (2mks).

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

18.       a)         State three ways in which people in developing countries are affected

by food shortages.      (3mks)

b)         Explain six ways that the developing countries can use to reduce the problem of food shortages. (12 mks)

19.       a)         Identify the three types of trade. (3mks)

            b)         Describe the organization of the Trans – Saharan trade. (12mks)

20.       a)         State three factors that have contributed to the growth of

Johannesburg city (3mks)

b)         Describe six social problems faced by the residents of Johannesburg since the end of apartheid. (12mks)

21.       a)         How did the invention of the steam engine contribute to the

process of colonization in Africa? (3 mks)

            b)         Explain six positive effects of European colonization of Africa. (12mks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

22.       a)         Identify three terms of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. (3mks)

            b)         Give six reasons why the Central Powers were defeated in the

First World War. (12mks)

23.       a)         Give three political changes introduced by Mobutu Sese Seko

which led to dictatorship in the Democratic Republic of Congo. (3mks)

b)         Explain the economic problems faced by the Democratic Republic of congo since independence.(12mks)

24.       a)         Give three requirements for one to be allowed to contest as a

presidential  candidate in the United States of America.(3mks)

            b)         What are the functions of the United States Congress? (12mks)

K.C.S.E  HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 1 2009

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. Identify one branch in the  study of History  and Government of Kenya    

( 1 mk)

  1. Apart from the Maasai, name one other plains Nilotes found in Kenya       

( 1 mk)

  1. What was the main economic activity of the Cushites in the pre- colonial period?

                                                                                                                        ( 1 mk)

  1. State two political functions of the council of  elders among the Agikuyu during the colonial period                                                                                 ( 2 mks)
  2. Name two groups that rivaled the Portuguese for  the control of the Kenyan coast  in the 16th century                                                                              ( 2 mks)
  3. Identify two communities which resisted the British Occupation of Kenya

( 2 mks)

  1. Give the main reason why poll tax was introduced  in Kenya during the colonial period                                                                                                     ( 1 mk)
  2. Who was the chairman of the East African Association during the colonial period in Kenya?                                                                                             ( 1 mk)
  3. Name the first African to be nominated to the legislative Council in 1944 in Kenya                                                                                                            ( 1 mk)
  4.   Identify two methods used by trade unionists to demand for their rights during  the colonial period                                                                               ( 2 mks)
  5. State the main reason why the second Lancaster  House Conference was  held  in 1962                                                                                                     ( 1 mk)
  6. State two roles  played  by the Kenya African Democratic  Union in the struggle for independence in Kenya                                                                        ( 2 mks)
  7. Give two  ways through  which  the government has  encouraged the  preservation  of African  Culture  though  music  and dance                               ( 2 mks)
  8. State one way through  which the Minister  for local Government exercises control  over  Municipal Councils in Kenya                                              ( 1 mk)
  9. Name  the unit  of the police department which is responsible  for maintaining law and order at the chief’s office                                                               ( 1 mk)
  10. Who appoints the Head of the Civil Service in Kenya?                     ( 1 mk)
  11. Identify two characteristics of African Socialism that promote national development in Kenya                                                                  ( 2 mks)


SECTION B (45 MARKS)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a) Give the evidence  which shows that early visitors reached the  Kenyan coast  before the 15th century                                                             ( 3 mks)

(b) Explain six results of the interaction between the people of the Kenyan Coast and the Arabs                                                                                       ( 12 mks)

  1. (a) Give three causes of the Somali resistance  to the  British  rule  in Kenya  during  the  19th century                                                                   ( 3 mks)

(b) Explain six negative effects of British colonial on the people of Kenya

                                                                                                            ( 12 mks)

  1. (a) Why did the colonial government deny the Africans  the right to grow  cash  crops  in Kenya  before 1954?                                                  ( 3 mks)

(b) Explain six problems faced by Africans by Africans in urban centres during the colonial period in Kenya                                                                          ( 12 mks)

  1. (a) Give three reasons for the coming of European Christian missionaries to Kenya in the 19th Century                                                                  ( 3 mks)

(b) Explain six factors that hindered the work of early Christian missionaries in Kenya                                                                                                       ( 12 mks)

K.C.S.E HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 2

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. Name two types of written materials used by historians as a source of history and government.                                                                             ( 2 mks)
  2. State two ways  in which the early  man  obtained food                   ( 2 mks)
  3. State Charles Darwin’s theory  of evolution                                      ( 1 mk)
  4. Identify the greatest  contribution  of Michael  Faraday  in the field  of science

( 1 mk)

  1. Give the main use of steam  power during the industrial revolution  in Europe

( 1 mk)

  1. State two disadvantages of  using wood as a source of energy         ( 2 mks)
  2. Give two means of water transport used during the ancient times    ( 2 mks)
  3. State two advantages of the use of money over  barter as a medium

       of exchange                                                                                        (2 mks)

  1. Give two reasons why early  urban  centres  in ancient Egypt developed  in the Nile  Valley                                                                                              ( 2 mks)
  2. State two economic activities of the Shona during the pre- colonial 

Period                                                                                                  (2 mks)

  1. Define the term ‘sphere  of influence’ as used by the European powers in Berlin conference of 1884 and 1885                                                                ( 1 mk)
  2. Identify one political reform introduced by President Fredrick de Klerk that led to the achievement of black majority rule in South Africa.             ( 1 mk)
  3. Give one way in which policy of nationalization slowed  down economic development in Tanzania during the rule of Julius Nyerere                    ( 1 mk)
  4. Name the organ of the United Nations that promotes justice  in the world

 ( 1 mk)

  1. Identify one superpower that was  involved  in the  cold war           ( 1 mk)
  2. Name two English speaking member countries of the economic community of West Africa States (ECOWAS)                                                    ( 2 mks)
  3. Identify  one house  of Congress  in the United  States of America  ( 1 mk)


SECTION B (25 MARKS)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. (a) Give three stages in the evolution of man  before Homo Erectus ( 3 mks)

(b) Describe six ways in which the discovery of fire by early man improved his way of life                                                                                                ( 12 mks)

  1. (a) Identify three ways in  which  water used  in industries  during the 18th century

(b) Explain six social effects of the industrial revolution in Europe during the 18th century                                                                                                 ( 12 mks)

  1. (a) Identical  the effects  methods used  by the French to acquire colonies in West Africa                                                                                                  ( 3 mks)

(b) Explain six factors that led to the defeat of Samori Toure by the French

                                                                                                            ( 12 mks)

  1. (a) Give three reasons why  it took long for  Mozambique to achieve independence from Portugal                                                             ( 3 mks)

(b) Explain six factors that favoured the success of FRELIMO nationalists during their struggle for independence in Mozambique                                    ( 12 mks)        

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1 – 2010

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

1.         Give the meaning of history.                                                                                         (1 mark)
2.         Identify one age-grade for elders among the Akamba.                                              (1 mark)

3.         State the first settlement area of the Luo during their migration from Sudan.       (1 mark)

4.         Name one early Christian missionary who worked in Kenya.                                 (1 mark)

5.         State two characteristics of independent churches in Kenya during the

            colonial period.                                                                (2 marks)

6.         Identify the constitutional change that increased the number of African

            members to the legislative council in Kenya in 1957.                                               (1 mark)

7.         Identify one Asian who took part in the struggle for independence in Kenya.     (1 mark)

8.         Name one African political party whose leaders attended the 2nd

            Lancaster House Conference in 1962.                                                                        (1 mark)

9.         Identify two Educational Commissions appointed by the government

            of independent Kenya to review the education system.                          (2 marks)

10.       Give the main reason why the government of Kenya introduced the

            Constituency Development Fund (CDF).                                                                    (1 mark)

11.       State two ways in which the government has promoted the culture of the

            people of Kenya since independence.                                                                      (2 marks)

12.       Identify two conditions that one must fulfill in order to register as a voter

            in Kenya.                                                                      (2 marks)

13.       Give two special courts in Kenya.                                                                              (2 marks)

14.       State two duties of the leader of Government Business in parliament

            in Kenya.                                                                                                                         (2 marks)

15.       Identify two symbols of national unity in Kenya.                                                    (2 marks)
16.       Give two reasons that can make a registered person to lose citizenship

            in Kenya.                                                                                                                         (2 marks)
17.       Give one type of human rights.                                                                                   (1 mark)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

18.      (a)        Give five reasons which influenced the migration of the Plains

                        Nilotes to Kenya during the pre-colonial period.                                   (5 marks)

           (b)        Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the Maasai in

                        Kenya during the pre-colonial period.                                                     (10 marks)

19.      (a)        Give three reasons why the early visitors came to the  Kenyan-coast

                        before 1500 AD.                                                                                           (3 marks)

           (b)        Explain six factors that contributed to the development of trade

                        between the Kenyan coast and the outside world by 1900.                  (12 marks)

20.      (a)        State three socio-economic reasons why Britain colonized Kenya

                        in the 19th Century.                                                                                     (3 marks)

           (b)        Explain six factors that contributed to the formation of political

                        associations in Kenya before 1939.                                                          (12 marks)

21.      (a)       State three ways in which the government of Kenya facilitated the

                       acquisition of land for Africans after 1963.                                             (3 marks)
           (b)       Explain six challenges facing the agricultural sector in Kenya.                       (12 marks)
                     

SECTION C (30 marks)
                       Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

22.     (a)        Give the structure of the provincial administration in Kenya.          (5 marks)
           (b)       Describe five functions of the president of the Republic of Kenya.    (10 marks)    

23.   (c) Give three reasons why the constitution is important in Kenya.        (3 marks)

      (b)    Explain six factors that may undermine the administration of justice

                       in Kenya                                                              (12 marks).

24.   (a)    Identify five stages in the preparation of the national budget.                      (5 marks)

      (b)    Explain why it is important for the Government to prepare the

             national budget annually.                                                                          (10 marks)

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2-2010

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer ALL the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

1.         State the scientific theory that explains the origin of human beings.               (1 mark)
2.         State two uses of stone tools by early people during the Old Stone Age period. (2 marks)
3.         Identify the method used to plant cereal crops when early agriculture began.  (1 mark)
4.         Name two metals that were used as currency in pre-colonial Africa.               (2 marks)
5.         State one advantage of using the pipeline over vehicles in transporting oil.    (1 mark)
6.         Give the two main items of the Trans-Saharan trade.                                           (2 marks)
7.         Identify two social functions of the ancient city of Athens in Greece.             (2 marks)

8.         Name the chartered company that was used to administer Tanganyika during

            the process of colonization.                                                                                                   (1 mark)

9.                     Which was the main factor that unified the communities of the Shona Kingdom

            during the pre-colonial period?                                                                                 (1 mark)

10.       State two functions of the Lukiiko in the Buganda Kingdom during the

            19th Century.                                                                (2 marks)

11.       Give one economic reason which made European countries to scramble for
            colonies in Africa.                                                                                                        (1 mark)

12.       State one way in which the Ndebele benefited after the British-Ndebele war of

            1893 to 1896.                                                                                                                             (1 mark)
13.       Identify two economic results of the First World War.                                         (2 marks)

14.      Give two principal organs of the United Nations.                                                  (2 marks)

15.       Identify two ways in which Mwalimu Julius Nyerere promoted the

            development of Education in Tanzania after independence.                            (2 marks)

16.       State one condition that a country should fulfil in order to become a member

            of the Non-Aligned Movement.                                                                            (1 mark)
17.       Identify one Parliamentary duty of the Monarch in Britain.                             (1 mark)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any THREE questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

18.       (a) State five reasons why early people domesticated crops and animals during the

                        neo-lithic period.                                                                                         (5 marks)
           (b)        Explain five causes of food shortages in Africa today.                         (10 marks)

19.      (a)        Give three problems faced by factory workers in Europe during the

                        Industrial Revolution.                                                                                 (3 marks)

           (b)        Explain six factors that have promoted industrialization in South Africa.

                                                                                                                                                (12 marks)

20.      (a)        Give three methods used by European Powers to establish colonial

                        nile in Africa.                                                                                                (3 marks)

           (b)        Explain six results of the collaboration between the Baganda and the

                        British during the process of colonization.                                              (12 marks)

21.      (a)        State three ways used by nationalists in Ghana to fight for independence.

                                                                                                                                                (3 marks)

           (b)        Explain six factors that led to the development of African Nationalism

                        in Ghana.                                                                                                       (12 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer any TWO questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

22.   (a)       Give three conditions which one bad to fulfil in order to become a French

                        citizen in Senegal.                                                                                        (3 marks)

           (b)        Explain six differences between the use of British indirect rule and

                        the French Assimilation Policy.                                                                 (12 marks)

23       (a)        State the role played by the United States of America in ending the

                        Second World War.                                                                                     (3 marks)

           (b)        Explain six causes of the cold war after 1945.                                       (12 marks)

24       (a)        Identify three duties performed by the Secretary-General of the new East

                        African Community established in 2001.                                                (3 marks)

           (b)        Explain six benefits of the new East African Community established in
                        2001.                                                                                                              (12 marks)

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

Paper 1

Oct./Nov. 2011

21/2 Hours

SECTION A (25marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. Give two unwritten sources of information on History and Government.         (2 marks)
  2. What was the main reason for the migration of the Eastern Bantu from Shungwaya during the pre-colonial period?                                                                                         (1 mark)
  3. Give two reasons why Kenyan Communities fought against each other during the

Pre-colonial period.                                                                                         (2 marks)

  • Identify the two main items of trade from the interior of Kenya during the long distance trade                                                                                                               (2 marks)
  • Identify two contributions made by the early Christian missionaries in the field of education in Kenya.                                                                                                              (2 marks)
  • Give the meaning of the term ‘national integration’.                                          (1 mark)
  • What constitutional amendment made Kenya return to a multi-party state?      (1 mark)
  • Name the document which contains the rights of the child in Kenya.   (1 mark)
  • Identify two economic benefits of the Kenya-Uganda railway during the colonial

period.                                                                                                 (2 marks)

  1. Give two ways through which the white settlers acquired land in Kenya during the colonial period.                                                                                           ( 2 marks)
  2. State two problems faced by trade union movement during the colonial period in

Kenya.                                                                                                 (2 marks)

  1. State one change introduced by the Lyttleton Constitution of 1954 that benefited the Africans in the struggle for independence.                                                (1 mark)
  2. What was the main contribution of Thomas Joseph Mboya to the history of Kenya?

(1 mark)

  1. State the main function of parliament in Kenya                                     (1 mark)
  2. Give two member of the AEMO at its inception in 1957.                      (1 mark)
  3. Name the education commission that recommended the introduction of the 8:4:4 system of education in Kenya.                                                                                         (2 marks)
  4. Give two external sources of Government revenue in Kenya                 (2 marks)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1.    (a)         State five economic activities of the Borana during the pre-colonial period

(5 marks)

(b)        Describe the social organization of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period.

(10 marks)

19.       (a)        State three reasons for the coming of the Portuguese to the Kenyan Coast in

the 15th Century.                                                        (3 marks)

            (b)        Explain six effects of the Portuguese rule on the East African Coast. (12 marks)

20.       (a)        Identify three methods used by the British to establish their rule in Kenya. 

(3 marks)

            (b)        Explain six results of the Nandi resistance against British Occupation. (12 marks)

21.       (a)        State five demands made by the East African Association (EAA) to the

British Colonial Government in Kenya                                              ( 5 marks)

            (b)        Explain five factors that promoted the rise of African nationalism in Kenya

after 1945.                                                                                           (10 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

22.       (a)           State three circumstances that can make a Kenyan citizen to be denied the right

   to life.                                                                                   (3 marks)

(b)        Explain six civic responsibilities of a Kenya citizen.              (12 marks)

23.       (a)        Give three reasons why general elections are important in Kenya.      (3 marks)

            (b)        Explain six functions of the body in charge of elections in Kenya.(12 marks)

24.       (a)        Identify three social functions of local authorities.               (3 marks)

            (b)        Explain six challenges facing local authorities in Kenya.      (12 marks)

311/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

Paper 2

Oct./ Nov. 2011

2 ½ hours.

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. Give two archaeological sources of information on History and Government. (2 marks)
  2. Give two reasons that made early human beings to live in groups during the Stone Age period.                                                                                                                    (2 marks)
  3. Identify two ways through which early agriculture spread in Africa.         (2 marks)
  4. State two limitations of using animal transport.                                           (2 marks)
  5. Why was ‘silent trade’ practiced by Tran-Saharan traders?                                     (1 mark)
  6. Identify the main factor that led to the growth of the Ancient town of Moroe. (1 mark)
  7. What was the main function of the Council of elders among African societies during the pre-colonial period?                                                                                              (1 mark)
  8. State two social factors that led to the scramble for colonies in Africa by European powers.                                                                                                ( 2 marks)
  9. Name one African country that was not colonized by the European powers.   (1 mark)
  10. State two roles played by the African chiefs in British Colonial administration in

Nigeria.                                                                                                             (2 marks)

  1. Name the Chartered Company that administered Zimbabwe during the process of colonization.                                                                                                 (1 mark)
  2. Give the main reason for the formation of the League of Nations in 1919.       (1 mark)
  3. Give two economic reasons for the growth of African Nationalism in Ghana. (2 marks)
  4. Outline two factors that enabled Tanzania to maintain national unity since

Independence.                                                                                                (2 marks)

  1. What is ‘veto power’ as used by the United Nations?                            (1 mark)
  2. Name one major political party in the United States of America.                      (1 mark)
  3. Name one type of election held for the House of Commons in Britain.            (1 mark)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any THREE questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1.    (a)         Give three physical characteristic of Homo erectus.                          (3 marks)

    (b)    Explain six cultural practices of Homo sapiens during the New Stone Age.

(12 marks)

19.       (a)        State three disadvantages of coal as a source of energy                    (3 marks)

            (b)        Explain six effects of the scientific inventions on industry                (12 marks)

20.       (a)        State three factors that contributed to the development of the trans-Atlantic

Trade.                                                                                                  (3 marks)

            (b)        Explain six negative effects on Trans-Atlantic Communities (12 marks)

21.       (a)        State three factors that enabled European powers to colonize Africa in the

late 19th                                                                                               (3 marks)

            (b)        Explain six effects of the partition of Africa on the Africans.           (12 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer any TWO questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

22.       (a)        Give three functions of the Kabaka of Buganda Kingdom during the

Pre-colonial period.                                                                             (3 marks)

            (b)        Describe the political organization of the Shona during the pre-colonial

period.                                                                                                 (12 marks)

23.       (a)        Identify five ways through which the United Nations (UN) promotes

good governance in the world.                                                           (5 marks)

            (b)        Explain five achievements of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) since

its formation.                                                                                       (10 marks)

24.       (a)        State three objectives for the formation of Common Market for Eastern

and Southern Africa (COMESA).                                                      (3 marks)

            (b)        Explain six challenges facing the Common Market for Eastern and

Southern Africa (COMESA).                                                             (12 marks)

HISTORY & GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1 MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (25 MARKS) 

  1. Give two unwritten sources of information on History and Government.
  2. Oral traditions /oral source.
  3. Archaeology /Paleontology.
  4. Genetics.
  5. Linguistics.
  6. Anthropology                                                                                Any 2×1=2 marks
  • What was the main reason for migration of the Eastern Bantu from shugwaya during pre-colonial period?                                                                                                (1 mark)
  • Due to attacks by the Galla                                                                (1×1 mark)
  • Give two reasons why Kenyan communities fought against each other during the pre-colonial period.                                                                                           (2 marks)
  • Competition for land for cultivation/settlement
  • Competition for water/pasture.
  • To demonstrate their military power.
  • To raid for cattle.                                                                    (Any 2 x 1 =2 marks)
  • Identify the two main items of trade from the interior of Kenya during the long distance Trade.                                                                                                               (2 marks).
  • Ivory
  • Slaves
  • Identify two contributions made by the early Christian Missionaries in the field of Education in Kenya.                                                                                       (2 marks)
  • They set up schools/encouraged Africans to go to school.
  • They taught Africans vocational skills.
  • They translated the bible into African languages.
  • They wrote books/dictionary.                                                      (Any 2×1=2 marks)
  • Give the meaning of the term ‘nation integration’                                         (1 mark)
  • It is the process of bringing together people of diverse backgrounds in a country.                                                                                                                   (1×1 = 1 mark)
  • What constitutional amendment made Kenya return to a multi-party state?                                                                                                                                     (1 mark)
  • Repeat of section 2A of the constitution in 1991.                                     (1×1=1 mark)
  • Name of the document which contains the Rights of the Child in Kenya.

(1 mark)

  1. The Children’s Act of 2001.
  2. Identify two economic benefits of the Kenya Uganda railway during the colonial period.                                                                                                              (2 marks)
  3. It facilitated the transportation of goods/services.
  4. It led to the development of urban centres.
  5. It facilitated the movement of traders/promoted trade.
  6. It opened up the interior for economic development e.g. Plantation Agriculture and industry.
  7. It led to the creation of employment opportunities.
  8. It led the development of other forms of transport & communication e.g. roads & telecommunication.
  9. It was the major source of revenue for colonial Authority.
  1. Give two ways through which the white settlers acquired land in Kenya during the colonial period.                                                                                           (2 marks)
  2. The colonial government provided land in Kenya during the colonial period.
  3. The colonial government provided land to the settlers.
  4. The colonial government passed land legislations that encouraged white settlers to own land.                                                                             (Any 2×1=2 marks)
  1. State two problems faced by trade union movement during the colonial period in Kenya.
  2. It had insufficient funds to run its activities.
  3. The colonial government harassed its leaders.
  4. Constant wrangling among the leaders which weakened the movement/poor leadership.
  5. Most people did not support trade unions due to ignorance.

                                                                                   Any 2 x1 =2 Marks

  1. State one change introduced by the Lyttleton constitution of 1954 that benefited the Africans in the struggle for independence.    (1 mark)
  2. It led to the establishment of a multi- racial of ministers to replace the Governor’s executive council.
  3. The ban on political organizations was lifted/allowed political organizations to operate at district level.                                                                       (1×1=1mark)
  1. What was main contribution of Thomas Joseph Mboya to the History of Kenya?
  2. He led/organized the trade union movement                                       (1×1=1mark)
  3. State the main functions of parliament in Kenya                  (1 mark)
  4. To make laws                                                                (1x1mark)
  1. Give one member of the AEMO at its inception in 1957.    (1 mark)
  2. Daniel  Arap Moi
  3. Masinde Muliro
  4. Lawrence Oguda
  5. James muimi
  6. Tom Mboya
  7. Ronald Ngala
  8. Bernard Mate
  9. Oginga Odinga

                                                                                               Any 1×1 =1 mark

  1. Name the education commission that recommended introduction of 8.4.4 education System in Kenya.                                      (1mark)
  2. Macky Report/Commision.                                          1×1=1mark
  1. Give two external sources of Government revenue in Kenya           (2 marks)
  2. Loans
  3. Grants.
  4. Donations                                                                     Any 2 x 1= 2 marks

                                                            SECTION B (45 Marks)

  1. (a). State five activities of the Borana during the pre-colonial period.
  2. They participated in trade.
  3. They kept livestock.
  4. They hunted wild animals.
  5. They were gathers.
  6. They practiced crafts.
  7. They practiced fishing
  8. They made iron tools.
  9. They grew food crops

                                                                                   Any 5 x 1=5 marks

              (b). Describe the social organization of the Maasai during the pre-

                       colonial period.                                                             (10marks)

  1. The lowest social unit was the family which comprised of father, his wife/wives and children.
  2. Several related families formed a clan.
  3. The Massai were organized into age groups age sets which were made up of people who were circumcised at the same period.
  4. There was a warrior class whose duty was to defend on the community/conduct raids.
  5. The Masaai believed in the existence of supreme God Enkai, who was the creator of the universe.
  6. There was a religious leader, laibon who mediated between the community and Enkai.
  7. They offered sacrifices to God in special places/celebrated the century that graduation of Martin.
  8. They believed in the existence of ancestral spirits whom they revered.

                                                                       Any 5 points x 2 =10 marks

  1.  (a). State three reasons for coming of the Portuguese to the Kenya Coast in 15th Century.
  2. They wanted to find a sea route to India.
  3. They wanted to spread Christianity/reduce the muslim influence.
  4. They wanted to take part in the Costal trade.
  5. To control strategic points on the East –African Coast from other European rivals/to act as a  supply base for their sailing vessels.
  6. Due to desire for exploration/adventure.

                                                                                   Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks

  •  (a). Identify three methods used by the British to establish their rule in Kenya.                                                                           (3 marks)
  • Singing treaties between colonial agents and Africans rulers/collaboration.
  • Use of military attacks against unfriendly communities/use of force.
  • Establishing administrative stations/operational basis.
  • Offering gifts to friendly chiefs/treachery.
  • Use of missionaries to pacify Africans through preaching.

                                                                                   Any 3 x1 =3 marks

  (b). Explain six results of the Nandi resistance against British occupation.                                                                                                                                   (12 marks)

i.   The land belonging to the Nandi resistance against British

     occupation.

ii. The Nandi lost their independence as the British established their rule.

  1. Establishing administrative station stations/operational basis.
  2. Offering gifts to friendly chiefs/treachery.
  3. Use of missionaries to pacify Africans through preaching.

                                                                                   (Any 6×2 = 12 marks)            

  • (a). State five demands made by the East African Association (EAA) TO the  British Colonial Government in Kenya.
  • They demanded for the return of alienated land.
  • They wanted the colonial government to abolish hut/poll tax.
  • They demanded for the abolition of the Kipande.
  • They demanded for better working and living conditions.
  • They demanded that elections to the legislative council be on a common roll.
  • They demanded for abolition forced labour.
  • They demanded for more education for Africans.
  • They demanded an end to compulsory destocking.
  • They demanded for the revocation of colonial status.

                                                                                   Any 5 x 1 =5 marks

              (b). Explain five factors that promoted the rise of African nationalism in

                Kenya after 1954.

  1. Acquisition of Western Education by many African enabled them to understand political development at international level and forcefully demanded for independence.
  2. The experience of the ex-soldiers in the second world war made them realize that Europeans were not superior hence the demand for self rule.
  3. The granting of independence to India in 1947 inspired Africans to demand for political independence.
  4. The support given by pan-Africanist in demanding for political independence and gave Africans confidence to press for political freedom.
  5. The support given by pan-Africanists in demanding for political independence gave Africans confidence to press for political freedom.
  6. The decolonization policy by United Nations inspired African nationalists to press on for independence.
  7. The failure by the colonial government to reward the ex-world war II soldiers increased the agitation for independence.
  8. Signing of Altlantic in 1941.

                                                                       Any 5×2=10 marks

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

  • (A). State three circumstances that can make a Kenya citizen to be denied the right to life.                                                                                                          (3 marks)
  • When defending oneself/property
  • When effecting a lawful arrest
  • When preventing escape of a lawfully detailed person
  • When preventing a person from committing a crime/folony
  • In a situation of war.
  • When suppressing a riot/rebellion /mutiny

                                                                       Any 3×1=3 marks

(b). Explain six Civil responsibilities of a Kenya citizen                    (12 marks)

              i.  A responsible citizen pays tax to enable the government meet its

                 financial obligation.

  1. To participate in community development activities to improve the welfare of people in the community.
  2. To participate in the democratic process by electing leaders /being elected to ensure good governance.
  3. To obey laws so as to enhance peace in the society.
  4. Takes care of the environment in order to promote healthy living.
  5. Prevents/fights corruption to promote proper utilization of resources by all.
  6. Promotes/protects the right and freedom of all people in society for harmonious co-existence.
  7. Promotes the rule of law by reporting wrong doers/law breakers to the police.
  8. To participate in National debates/Baraza.

                                                                       Any 6×2 =12 marks

  •  (a). Give three reasons why general elections are important in Kenya.
  • marks)
  • They provide Kenyans with an opportunity to choose political leaders.
  • They enable Kenya to exercise their democratic rights.
  • They offer alternative ideas of running the government through different political parties manifestos.
  • It is a constitutional requirement.
  • They make elected leaders/prospective leaders work to ensure that they are re-elected/elected.

                                                                                         Any 3×1 =3 marks

          (b). Explain six functions of the body in charge of elections in Kenya

                                                                                                                         (12 marks)

  1. To maintain and revise the voters’ register to ensure it is up date.
  2. To prepare, distribute and ensure safety of election materials/pooling stations.
  3. To conduct voter education in the country in order to prepare citizen for the voting exercise.
  4. To conduct and supervise elections so as to endure they are free and fair.
  5. To conduct language proficiency tests for candidates interested in for different posts before nomination is carried out.
  6. To announce and provide a timetable to be followed during the election period.
  7. To receive nomination papers from the candidates cleared to vie by the political parties.
  8. To announce the results and declare the winners for the respective seats.
  • (a). Identify three social functions of local authorities                       (3 marks)
  • They issue trade licenses.
  • They provide market areas.
  • They provide market areas.
  • They provide employment opportunities.
  • They impose cess/other levies.
  • Provision of education services e.g ministry of primary schools.
  • Provision of health/sanitation services e.g.
  • Provision of security and fire bridges services

                                                                          Any 3×1=3 marks

       (b). Explain six challenges facing local authorities in Kenya                   (12 Marks)

              i. Most local authorities have inadequate funds hence not able to provide

             quality service.

  1. Increased population has led to congestion in urban centres hence overstretching the social amenities.
  2. Corruption/mismanagement of funds by some officers has made it difficult for the local authorities to pay its employees and provide quality services.
  3. Some local authorities are too small to be able to sustain themselves.
  4. Influential politicians interfere with the running of the local authorities hence making it difficult for them to operate efficiently. Lack of authority from central Government.
  5. Increased crime rate has led to vandalization of properties belonging to local authorities hence leading to heavy losses.
  6. The presence of street families/children has contributed to insecurity /put strain on provision of social services.
  7. Slums have mushroomed which have interfered with proper planning leading to poor service delivery /property eradication.
  8. Poor disposal of waste has resulted to environment degradation leading to outbreaks of diseases/ epidemics.
  9. Shortage of quality materials /shortage of personnel.
  10. Traffic congestion

HISTORY & GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2  MARKING SCHEME

SECTION  A (25 MARKS)

  1. Give two archaeologist sources of information on History and Government  (2 marks)
  2. Tools/utensils/ornament/onions used by man.
  3. Weapon  used by man
  4. Settlements/ruins of the paintings
  5. Remains of human /animals.
  6. Plant remains.
  7. Garments/ornaments.
  8. Coins used by man
  •  Give two reasons that made early human beings to live in groups during the stone age period.                                                                                                                              (2 marks)
  1. For companionship
  2. For security
  3. To share resources
  4. To help one another.                                                                     (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
  • Identify two ways through which early agriculture spread in Africa.                              (2 marks)
  • Through migration
  • Through trade
  • Through intermarriages
  • Through wars.
  • State two limitations of using animal transport                                                                (2 marks)
  • Animal are affected by poor health/injuries/attacked by wild animals.
  • Rugged terrain/extreme weather condition hampers the movement of animals.
  • Animal transport has limited carrying capacity
  • Animal transport is time consuming/slow.
  • Animal transport is cumbersome. Some animal are stubborn.
  • Animal transport is limited to day-time and not right time.
  • Why was silent trade practiced trade practiced by Trans-sahara traders? (open)

 ( 1 marks)

  • Due to language barrier/lack of common language.
  • Identify the main factor that led to the growth of ancient town of Mereo.
  • Existence of iron.
  • What was the main function of the Council of elders among Africa societies during the Pre-colonial period?
  • They mediated /settled dispute/made peace in community.
  • State two social factors that led to the scramble for colonies in Africa by European powers.                                                                                                                                              (2 marks)
  • The need to abolish slave trade
  • The desire to spread Christianity/ to prevent missionaries.
  • The desire to spread western civilian/education/western civilization
  • The need to settle surplus population                                           (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
  • Name one African country that was colonized by European powers
  • Ethiopia                                                                            
  • Liberia                                                                                           (Any 1×1=1 marks)
  1. State two roles played by the African Chiefs in the British Colonial administration in Nigeria.                                                                                                                   (Any 2 x1= 2 marks)
  1. Name the chartered company that administered Zimbabwe during the process of Colonization.
  2. The British South Africa Company (BSAC)
  1. Give the main reason for the formation of the League of Nations in 1919.                     ( 1 mark)
  2. To promote /sustain World peace/Security. To prevent the occurrence of another war.                                                                                                                    (1mark)
  1. Give two economic reasons for the growth of African nationalism in Ghana.                (2 marks)
  2. The order by the colonial government that Africans uproot cocoa trees affected by diseases.
  3. The colonial government denied African trading licenses.
  4. African  farmers earned low incomes from the sale of cocoa to European firms
  5. High unemployment rate for the Africans.
  6. Sharp increase in prices of goods                                                   (Any 2×1=2 marks)
  1. Outline two factors that enable Tanzania to maintain national unity since independence.

i.Adherence to the policy of socialism (Ujamaa)

Application of the constitution

Use of Kiswahili as a National language.

Leadership that was willing to embrace changes. Good Leadership        (Any 2 x 1=2 marks)

  1. What ‘Veto power’ as used by the United Nation?                                                         (1 mark)
  2. A decision cannot be adopted if any of the permanent members of the Security Council votes against it.                                                                          (1 mark)
  1. Name one Major political party in united State of America.                                            (1 mark)
  2. Republic party.
  3. Democratic party                                                                                      (Any 1×1=1 mark)
  1. Name one type of election held  for the House of Common in Britain                (1 mark)
  2. General election
  3. By-election                                                                                    (Any 1 x 1=1 mark)

SECTION B (45 Marks)

  1.  (a). Give three physical characteristics of the Home erectus.                              (3 marks)
  2. Had upright posture/bipedal
  3. Had protruding jaws.
  4. Was about 5 feet tall/1.5 m
  5. Had slopping forehead.
  6. Had deep set eyes/deep eye sockets
  7. Had hair body.                                                                              (Any 3 x 1 =3 marks)

(b). Explain six cultural practices of Homo sapiens during the New Stone Age              (12 marks)

  1. Made microlithic tools which were small and more efficient that the earlier tools.
  2. Lived in rock shelters/cave/hat to protect themselves from harsh weather/wild animals.
  3. Decorated shelters with animal paintings/hunting scenes
  4. Began to domesticate animals/plants in order to ensure regular food supply.
  5. Developed speech which made communication easier.
  6. Developed government by setting up rules/laws.
  7. Developed religion as evidence by the practice of burying the dead with their possessions.
  8. They practiced simple Art and Craft work pottery/basketry/weaving
  9. They started a settle way of life where they established villages.
  10. They were a variety of garments/clothing
  11. They decorated their bodies with red ochre/wore Orama

                                                                                          (any 6×2=12 marks).

  1. (a). State three disadvantages of  coal as a source of energy                   (3 marks)
  2. Coal is bulky to transport
  3. Coal causes pollution
  4. Mining of coal an lead to injuries/death
  5. It is a non-renewable source of energy
  6. Coal was expensive to mine and transport                                   (any 3×1 =3 marks)

(b). Explain effects of the scientific inventions on industry                     (12 marks)

i. Machines have been improved which produce goods on a large scale.

ii. Alternative sources of energy have been developed for use in industries.

  1. Invention of steam engine has improved transportation of raw materials to the industries /finished goods to the market.
  2. The development of the printing press has enabled people to read and acquire knowledge/information about industrialization.
  3. There has been loss of lives through industrial accidents
  4. Data processing /storage has been improved by use of computers.
  5. Robots have been developed which have reduced over reliance on human labour/reduced labour costs.
  6. Development of telecommunication has led to buying /selling of goods on the internet/   e-commerce
  7. Research has enabled industries to recycle waste products in manufacturing usable goods.                                                                                     (Any 6×2=12 marks)
  • (a). State three factors contributed to the development of the Trans-Altlantic Trade (3 marks)
  • Availability of items
  • Demand for slaves in the New World
  • Availability of sailing ships.
  • The discovery of the compass
  • Availability of fire arms.
  • Existence of trade routes/links.                                                     (3×1=3 marks)

(b). Explain six negative effects of Tran-Atlantic trade African Communities.               (12 marks)

i. There was increased instability/conflict among communities as traders raided for slaves.

ii. Many Africans lost their live during the slave raids.

  1. Traditional industries declined as African acquired taste of European goods.
  2. There was increased suffering among families as their loved ones were separated/sold to slavery.
  3. Some kingdom declined due to continuous attacks from their neighbours in search of trading items.
  4. There was destruction of property as communities raided each other for trade items.
  5. it contributed to the decline of the Trans-Sahara trade as many people found it more profitable.
  6. There was serious depopulation in west and parts of Central Africa due to slave trade.
  7. Africans lost confidence in their colleague who sold them to slave dealers.
  8. The trade exposed W.A to new diseases.
  9. There was fear and insecurity due to frequent raids on African Settlements.
  10. Weakened African communities could not resist colonial 

(Any 2×2 =12 marks)

  • (a). State three factors that enables European powers to colonize Africa in the late 19th Century.
  • Disunity among African communities.
  • Superior weapons used by Europeans armies.
  • Weak African communities due to wars/natural calamities.
  • Some communities collaborated with the Europeans
  • African ignorance about Europeans intentions    

(Any 3×1=3 marks)

(b). Explain six effects of the partition of Africa on African communities.

i. Africans lost independence as European established colonies.

ii. African economies weakened by the European exploitation of the resources.

  1. The African system of government was replaced by European system.
  2. African adopted European language which became official language in the colonies.
  3. Modern African state were created by the boundaries which were drawn during the partition
  4. African lost land as European established permanent settlements.
  5. African lost their lives/property as they resisted occupation.
  6. African culture undermined through the introduction of Western education/spread of Christianity /health.
  7. Closer ties were forged between Africans and Europeans which created overdependence on Europe.
  8. Intensification of war among African community.
  9. Infrastructure was developed in ling major mini Agricultural areas.
  10. Introduction of new policies e.g. forced labour.
  • (a). Give three functions of the Kabaka of Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial period.
  • He was the Commander in Chief of the armed forces.
  • Kabaka appointed /dismissed Saza chiefs/senior government official
  • He was lead of traditional religion.
  • He as the head of judiciary/final court of appeal.
  • He awarded honours to officers who offered distinguished service/land as award.                                                                                                             (Any 3×1=3 marks)

(b). Describe the political organization of the Shona during the Pre-colonial period.

i. The Shone were ruled by an emperor /King who had absolute authority over the 

    subjects.

ii. The emperor’s position was hereditary so as to reduce succession dispute.

iii. The emperor was assisted in the administration by the queen mother, the queen

sister, army commander, head drummer, head door keep or head cook.

     iv. There was an advisory council whole work was to advise the emperor.

  • The empire was divided into provinces which were headed by Provincial/Lesser

Kings.

vi. The provinces were divided into Chiefdoms ruled by chief.

  • Under the Chief were headmen who were in charge of the villages.

viii. Under the chief were headmen who were in charge of the villages.

  • The empire had a standing army whose main duty was to defend/expand the empire.
  • The king/Emperor was symbol of unity as he was semi-divine.
  • There existed priest who acted as spies for the emperor/king

(Any 6×2=12 marks)

  • (a). Identify Five ways through which United Nation (U.N.) promotes good Governance in the world.                                                                                                     (5 marks)
  • Send observers to monitor national elections in various states.
  • Provide financial /logistical assistance to countries during national elections.
  • Helped countries to attain independence/establish democratic govern.
  • Sends peacemaking forces to war torn countries.
  • Ensures representation of member state in the general Assembly.
  • Arbitraries disputed between countries/warning groups.
  • Monitors /condemns violation of human rights    (Any 5×1=5 marks)

(b). Explain five achievements of non-aligned movement (NAM) since its Formation.

                                                                                                                                          (10 marks)

  1. Provided a platform where member countries would speak with one voice in international for a
  2. He encouraged member countries to exert their voting power/influence in world affairs.
  3. Hastened the attainment of independence to those countries that were still under colonial rule
  4. Has promoted peace/security by encouraging member countries to observe neutrality in super power conflicts.
  5. Has played a key role in disarmament by condemning the arms race.
  6. Has promoted the creation of a new international economic order by encouraging member countries to trade with two super power blocs/financial assistance from each power bloc
  7. Has given funds to the countries through a fund , created to address demanding circumstances                                                                             (Any 5×2=10 marks)
  • (a). State three objectives for the Common Market Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
  • To co-operate in creating a conducive environment for foreign/cross border/domestic investment.
  • to co-operate in the promotion of peace/security/stability among member states.
  • To strengthen relations between COMESA members and the rest of the world/adopt a common position in international for a
  • To co-operate in realizing the objective of the African economics community.
  • To promote joint development in all economic fields in order to raise the living standards of the people.                                                   (Any 2×1=3 marks)

(b). Explain six challenges facing the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.(COMESA)

                                                                                                                  (12 Marks)

  1. Poor transport network has hampered movement of goods/service between member states
  2. The member countries produce similar goods thus limiting the market.
  3. Some member countries belong to other regional economic blocks/hence not fully committed to COMESA.
  4. Civil wars in some members’ state hamper smooth flow of goods due to insecurity hence lowering the volume of trade.
  5. Border disputes among some members state make it difficult for them to co-operate.
  6. Some member state prefers trading with their former colonial master thus posing stiff competition to products from COMESA region.
  7. Failure of some member states to harmonize tariffs has undermined free flow of goods/services
  8. Withdrawal of some members states has undermined the planning /financial of COMESA operations.
  9. Member states pursue their national interest thereby working against the objectives of COMESA.
  10. Personality differences between leaders e.g. Museveni and Al-Bashir.
  11. Quarrels over trading rights under COMESA Egypt and Kenya.
  12. Natural calamities e.g. draughts, floods leading to massive food shortages and famine.