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K.C.S.E AGRICULTURE PAPER 1 2006-2015

K.C.S.E AGRICULTURE PAPER 1 2006
SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. Differentiate between Olericulture and pomocullure as used in crop production ( 1 mk)
  2. State three ways by which biological agents can enhance the process of soil formation ( 1 ½ mk)
  3. State four advantages of drip irrigation ( 2 mks)
  4. State four advantages of adding organic manure to a sandy oil ( 2 mks)
  5. State two factors that would determine the amount of fertilizer to be top dressed to a
    crop in the field ( 1 mk)
  6. State four advantages of applying lime as a measure of improving soil condition
    ( 2 mks)
  7. Give four reasons for using certified seeds for planting ( 2 mks)
  8. Give four reasons for planting crops at the correct spacing ( 2 mks)
  9. State three effects of soil erosion ( 2 mks)
  10. Name four methods used to control weeds in pastures ( 2 mks)
  11. State two benefits of conserving forage crops ( 2 mks)
  12. Mention four practices that should be carried out to maintain grass pasture ( 1 ½ mks)
  13. Define the following terms as used in agriculture economics
    (a) Gross domestic product (GDP) ( 1 ½ mks)
    (b) Per capita income ( ½ mks)
  14. What is profit maximization in agriculture economics? ( ½ marks)
  15. State four benefits of budgeting to a farm manager ( 2 mks)
  16. Give two reasons why farmers keep farm accounts
  17. State activities carried out by young farmers club in Kenya ( 2 mks)
  18. State four ways by which afforestation helps in land reclamation ( 2 mks)
  19. State three advantages of multiple stem pruning over single stem pruning in coffee
    ( 1 ½ mks)
    SECTION B (20 mks)
    Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided
  20. Two maize pests are shown in the diagram below. Study them and answer the
    questions that follow,

(a) Identify the pests in the diagram labeled A and B ( 1 mk)
(b) at what stage of maize production does each damage the crop?
(c) Give one way of controlling each of the pests in the field
21 (a) state the law of diminishing returns in a production process
(b) Use the information on the table below to answer the questions that follow
Fertilizer input ( units) Maize yield (bags) Marginal productions (bags)
0 50 12
1 62 12
2 66 4
3 68 2
4 69 1
5 69 0

The cost of fertilizer is Kshs 1500 per unit and the price of maize is Kshs 1200 per bag.
(i) At what unit of fertilizer input should the farmer be advised to stop applying any more fertilizer to the maize? ( 1mk)
(ii) Give a reason for your answer in (b) above
(iii) Calculate the marginal return at the point of optimum production ( 1mk)

  1. (a) Describe the procedure which should be followed in spraying a crop in tomatoes using a fungicide in powder form, water and a knapsack sprayer. ( 3 mks)

(b) Name one fungal disease of tomatoes that can be controlled using the above procedure. (1mks)
c) State four safety measures that should be taken while spsraying the crop with the fungicide. (2mks)

  1. The diagram below shows a weed

a) Identify the weed (1mk)
b) State two reasons for controlling the weed. (2mks)
c) Name two herbicides that can be used to control the weed in a field
of maize (1mk)
d) A t what stage of growth of maize should the weed be controlled using
a post emergence herbicide’?

SECTION C (40 MARKS)
Answer any TWO questions in this section in the spaces provided at the end of the section.

  1. Describe the establishment of kales under the following sub – headings:
    a) Nursery preparation
    b) Establishment in the nursery
    c) Management of seedlings in the nursery.
    d) Transplanting of seedlings.
  2. a) Outline the factors necessary for proper functioning of farmers’
    co-operative societies in Kenya. (5mks)
    b) Explain how farmers overcome risks and uncertainties in
    a farming business.
    c) Describe the steps farmers should follow when planning a farm business
  3. a) List various methods of harvesting water in a farm
    b) Outline farming activities which may encourage soil erosion.
    c) Explain how various farming practices would help to conserve soil
    in a farm.

K.C.S.E. 2006 PAPER 2
SECTION A (30 MARKS)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Name a breed of sheep with a Lambing percentage of above 125 and whose fleece may be inferior due to black fibres. (1mk)
  2. List two appropriate hand tools needed to finish off the handle of a fork-jembe. (1mk)
  3. What is “cropping” in fish farming? (1mk)
  4. State four functions of lubrication system in a tractor. (2mks)
  5. Give four maintenance practices carried out on the water cooling system of a tractor. (2mks)
  6. State reasons why a farmer would choose to use a disc plough rather than a mould board plough. (2mks)
  7. State four construction features necessary in a fish pond. (2mks)
  8. Give four ways in which disease causing organisms can gain access into a newly born calf (2mks)
  9. State four ways of controlling tsetse flies. (2mks)
  10. Give two predisposing factors of foot-rot in sheep. (1mk)
  11. State four factors which should be considered when selecting dairy goats for breeding. (2mks)
  12. Give four reasons why camels are suited to living in arid areas. (2mks)
  13. Name two functions of the crop in the digestive system of chicken. (1mk)
  14. State four methods of dehorning (2mks)
  15. Mention six causes of stress to a flock of layers. (3mks)
  16. State four functions of the worker bees in a bee colony. (2mks)
  17. State four features of a good pig house. (2mks)

SECTION B (20 MARKS)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. (a) A diagram of a planter is shown below. Study it and answer the questions
    that follow. (i) Identify the parts labelled A, B, C, and D, (2mks)

A __________
B __________
C __________
D __________
(ii) State two maintenance practices carried out on the planter. (2mks)

b) Study the diagrams of workshop tools shown below

(i)     Identify the tools labeled E and F              (1mk)
E   __________________
F   __________________

(ii) What functional advantage does tool E have over tool F? (1mk)

  1. The diagram below represents a calf pen. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow.

(a) (i) Identify the type of floor. ( ½ mk)
(ii) How high should the floor be raised above the ground level? (1mk)

(b) (i) Give one reason for having the floor of the calf pen raised.   (1mk)

(ii) State three factors that should be considered in sitting the calf pen. (3mks)

  1. (a) Define the term digestible Crude Protein (DCP) ( ½ mk)

(b) A farmer wanted to prepare a 200kg of calf rearing ration containing 20% DCP. Using the Pears Square Method, calculate the amount of Maize containing 10% DCP and Sunflower containing 35% DCP the farmer would need to prepare the ration. (Show your work) (4mks)

  1. A diagram of a cow is shown below. Study it and answer the questions that follow. (a) Name the parts labeled G, H, I and J. G ____________________ H ____________________ I ____________________ J ____________________ (b) Name four parts of the animal preferred by a two host tick. (2mks)

SECTION C (40 MARKS)
Answer any TWO questions in this section in the spaces provided at the end of the section.

  1. a) Outline the procedure followed when hand spraying cattle to ensure
    effective use of acaricides to control ticks. (10mks)
    b) Discuss Foot and Mouth disease under the following headings:
    (i) Casual organisms. (1mk)
    (ii) Livestock species attacked. (2mks)
    (iii) Symptoms of attack. (4mks)
    (iv) Control measures. (3mks)
  2. a) Describe the management practices that a farmer should carry out to
    improve milk production in a low yielding herd of dairy cattle.(15mks)
    b) Describe the management practices that would ensure maximum yield of fish in a fish pond. (5mks)
  3. a) What are the advantages of farm mechanization? (6mks)
    b) Explain the differences between a two stroke and a four stroke cycle engine. (6mks)
    c) Outline the daily maintenance practices that should be carried out on a farm tractor (8mks)

K.C.S.E 2007 AGRICULTURE PAPER 1
SECTION A [30 MARKS
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Give four conditions of the land which may make it necessary to carry out reclamation practices. [2marks]
  2. List three physical weathering agents in the soil formation process [11/2]
  3. State two mechanical methods of separating soil particles according to size during soil analysis [1marks]
  4. Give two benefits of possessing a land Title Deed to a farmer. [1mark ]
  5. Give four advantages of crop rotation [2 marks]
  6. State four factors that should be considered when classifying crop pest
  7. State three functions of boron in crop development. [11/2]
  8. Outline four observable indicators of economic development of a nation [2marks]
  9. Give three factors that may influence the price of an agricultural commodity.[11/2]
  10. Name three examples of leguminous fodder crops. [11/2]
  11. Give two factors that may determine the size of a pit for silage making [1mark]
  12. Give three reasons for controlling weeds in pastures. 11/2
  13. State six characteristics of a productive soil. ( 3 mks)
  14. State any five qualities that should be considered when selecting seeds for planting ( 2 ½ mk)
    15 (a) State four practices which encourage soil erosion ( 2 mks)
    (b) Name two forms of gulley erosion ( 1 mk)
  15. (a) State four advantages of land consolidation ( 2 mks)
    (b) Give two advantages of leasehold tenure system in farming ( 1 mk)

SECTION B ( 20 MARKS)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. The table below shows the demand and supply of potatoes at UKULIMA market.

Price (Kshs) Quantity demanded (in bags) Quantity supplied (in bags)
1200 50 250
1000 90 200
800 150 150
600 225 70
400 335 0

(a) Using suitable scales, draw and label a graph showing the relationship between the demand and supply of the potatoes at UKULIMA market. ( 5 mks)
(b) What is the equilibrium price of the potatoes? ( 1 mk)
(c) From the graph determine:
(i) The number of bags of potatoes that would be bought if the price per bag is Kshs 900/= ( 1 mk)

(ii) The price of a bag of potatoes if 180 bags are supplied ( 1 mk)

  1. The diagrams labeled A1, A2, A3, and B below illustrate materials and methods of vegetative propagation. Study them and answer the questions that follow.

(a) Name the parts labeled A1, and A2 ( 2 mks)
A1
A2
(b) Name the methods of propagation illustrated in diagrams A3 and B ( 2 mks)
A3
B

  1. Study the crop illustrated in the diagram below and answer the questions that follow

(a) Name one insect pest which attacks the part labeled C1 and one disease which attacks the part labeled C2 (2 mks)
C1
C2

  1. A member of young farmers club was advised to apply a complete fertilizer 30: 20:10 in a tomato plot measuring 10m long by 5m wide at the rate of 300kg per hectare
    (a) State the percentage of P205 in the complete fertilizer ( 1 mk)
    (b) Calculate the amount of fertilizer the member would require for the plot (2 mks) (Show your working)
  2. The diagrams labeled D and E below are illustrations of coffee established using two different formative pruning systems. Study them and answer the questions that follow.

(a) Name the system of pruning illustrated in diagram D above ( 1mk)
(b) Outline how the pruning system illustrated in diagram E is carried out ( 2 mks)
SECTION C (40 MARKS)
Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided after questions 24

  1. (a) Describe the field production of irrigated rice under the following sub-headings
    (i) Land preparation ( 7 mks)
    (ii) Water control ( 6 mks)
    (b) Describe the management of trees grown under various agro- forestry systems ( 7 mks)
  2. (a) Describe the problems of marketing of agricultural produce ( 10 mks)
    (b) Discuss the importance of budgeting in agricultural production ( 10 mks)
  3. (a) Discuss the importance of irrigation if farming ( 12 mks)
    (b) Explain the factor that influence the type of irrigation to be used in a farm ( 8 mks)

K.C.S.E 2007 AGRICULTURE PAPER 2
SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Give two reasons for using litter in a poultry house. (1mk)
  2. Name two diseases of poultry that are controlled by vaccination. (1mk)
  3. State two factors that could lead to failure to conceive in sows after service. (1mk)
  4. Give tow causes of scouring in calves. (1mk)
  5. State three factors that would determine the amount of concentrate fed to dairy cattle.(1 ½ marks)
  6. Give three ways of stimulating milk let-down in a dairy cow.(1 ½ marks)
  7. State tow reasons for dehorning cattle. (1mk)
  8. List two equipment used in handling cattle during an agricultural exhibition.(1mk)
  9. State three signs of anthrax infection disease observed in the carcass of cattle.(1 ½ mks)
  10. Give three effects of external parasites that are harmful to livestock. (1 ½ mks)
  11. State four factors to consider when siting a fish pond. (2mks)
  12. State three adjustments that should be carried out on a tractor – mounted moulboard plough in preparation for ploughing. (1 ½ mks)
  13. a) Name four breeds of dairy goats. (2mks)
    b) Mention two distinguishing characteristics of the Bactrian camel breed. (1mk)
  14. State five methods of maintaining good health in livestock. (2 ½ mks)
  15. List four sources of farm power which are environmental friendly. (2mks)
  16. State three maintenance practices that should be carried out on a feed trough. (1 ½ mks)
  17. Name four systems of a tractor engine. (2mks)
  18. List three types of calf pens. (1 ½ mks)
  19. State four conditions that would encourage hens to eat eggs in poultry production (2mks)

SECTION B (20 MKS)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. The diagrams labeled A and B below show the teeth arrangements in hand workshop tools. a) Identify the tools represented with by the teeth arrangements
    A and B.(1mk)
    A ……………………………………………..
    B ……………………………………………..
    b) State one functional difference between tools represented by the
    teeth arrangements A and B.
    A ………………………………………………
    B ………………………………………………
    c) Give two maintenance practices for the tools represented by the
    teeth arrangement shown above. (2mks)
  2. a) The diagram below illustrates a method of identification in livestock production. Study the diagram and answer the Questions that follow.

i) Name the type of identification illustrated above. (1mks)
ii) Give the identification number of the animal illustrated in
the diagram above. (1mk)
iii) Using diagrams illustrate how you can identify animals Nos
24 and 36 using the above method. (2mks)
Animal No. 24
Animal No. 36
(b) If a sow was successfully served on 27th September, 2006, state the date
she is likely to have farrowed. (1mks)

  1. The diagram below shows a type of a farm gate. Study the diagram and
    answer the questions that follow.

a) Identify the type of gate shown (1/2 mk)
b) Name the parts labeled C, D and E. (1 ½ mks)
C …………………………………………..
D ……………………………………………
E …………………………………………..
c) i) State one function of the part labeled F. (1mk)
F ……………………………………………
ii) State two functions of the gate illustrated above. (2mks)

  1. The diagram below shows a farm implement. Study it and answer
    the questions that follow. a) Identify the farm implement illustrated above. (1mk)
    b) Name the parts labeled G, H, J and K.
    G ………………………………………………………
    H ………………………………………………………
    J ………………………………………………………
    K ……………………………………………………..
    c) State four functions of the farm implement illustrated above. (2mks)

SECTION C (40 marks)
Answer any TWO questions in this section in the spaces provided after question 26.

  1. a) Describe the advantages of the battery system of rearing layers. (10mks)
    b) Outline the factors to consider when selection livestock for breeding.
  2. a) Name the strokes in a four stroke engine and describe how
    each operates.(12mks)
    b) Describe the functions of the gear box in a tractor. (8mks)
  3. a) Name and describe the features of an ideal calf pen. (9mks)
    b) Discuss pneumonia in calves under the following sub – headings:
    i) Predisposing factors (3mks)
    ii) Symptoms (5mks)
    iii) Control measures (3mks)  
    K.C.S.E AGRICULTURE PAPER 1 2009
    SECTION A (30 MARKS)
    Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided
  4. List three methods of treating water for use on the farm ( 1 ½ mks)
  5. Give two example for each of the following categories of water pipes
    (a) Metal pipes ( 1 mk)

(b) Hose pipes ( 1 mk)

  1. State four disadvantages of communal land tenure system ( 2 mks)
  2. List four sites on which agro forestry trees can be established on a farm
    ( 2 mks)
  3. State four financial documents that should be kept on a farm ( 2 mks)
  4. Give two ways in which check dams control soil erosion ( 1 mk)
  5. List two methods of building that are used in propagation of plants ( 1 mk)
  6. Give two reasons for locating a nursery bed at a well sheltered place ( 1 mk)
  7. State four ways in which burning of vegetation may lead to lose of soil fertility
    ( 2 mks)
  8. Give two forms in which nitrogen is absorbed from the soil by plants ( 1 mk)
  9. Why is it necessary to allow freshly cut sorghum ( Columbus grass) to wilt before feeding it to livestock? ( 1 mk)
  10. Give two roles of soil micro- organisms that are beneficial to crops ( 1 mk)
  11. distinguish between the terms hybrid and composite as used in maize breeding
    ( 1 mk)
  12. Give three reasons for growing crops under optimum temperature conditions
    ( 1 ½ mks)
  13. State two harmful effects of strong wind on crop production ( 1 mk)
  14. Give two ways in which cover crops help to conserve water in the soil
    ( 1 mk)
  15. Give a reason for carrying out each of the following management practices on a tree nursery

(a) Pricking out ( 1 mk)

(b) Root trimming ( 1 mk)

  1. Outline two ways of controlling damping of disease on vegetable seedling in a nursery ( 1 mk)
  2. State four effects of pests with both piercing and sucking mouth parts on crops
    ( 2 mks)
  3. Name four natural factors that may influence soil erosion ( 2 mks)
  4. Give two conditions in agricultural production under which opportunity cost is zero ( 1 mk)

SECTION B ( 20 MARKS)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. The diagram below illustrates a maize cob attacked by a disease. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow. (a) Identify the disease ( 1 mk) (b) Apart from maize, give two other crops that may be attacked by the disease
    ( 1 mk) (c) State two methods of controlling the diseases ( 2 mks)
  2. The diagram below illustrates an experiment on soil. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow (a) State the aim of the experiment ( 1 mk)

(b) If the volume of water illustrated in the measuring cylinders was observed after one hour, identify the soil samples labeled A and B.

A ( ½ mk)

B ( ½ mk)

(c) State two ways in which the soil structure of the soil sample labeled C above can be improved. ( 2 mks)

  1. The diagram below illustrates a final seedbed after tertiary operation done during land preparation. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow. (a) Name the tertiary operation carried out on the seedback ( ½ mk) (b) Describe how the tertiary operation named in (a) above is carried out
    ( 1 ½ mks)

(c) Give two advantages of planting crops on the final seed back illustrated above ( 2 mks)

  1. What is the function of each of the following ingredients in the preparation of compost manure?

(a) Wood ash ( 1 mk)

(b) Top Soil ( 1 mk)

  1. Name the deficient nutrient element in plants showing the following symptoms

(a) Stunted growth, die back of plant tips, leaves roll up and chlorosis along margins of younger leaves ( ½ mk)

(b) Yellowing of leaves appears first lower leaves turn brown and fall prematurely, stunned growth ( ½ mk)

(c) Leaf curling, yellowing of leaves, tips and edges of leaves are scorched and have small mottles ( ½ mk)

(d) Purpling of leaves, stunned growth, slender stalks and lateral buds remain dormant ( ½ mk)

  1. (a) Why is the use of the following items essential during the harvesting of tea?

(i) Plucking stick ( 1 mk)

(ii) Woven basket ( 1 mk)

(b) Describe ten safety precautions that should be taken hen using herbicides to control weeds (10 mks)

  1. (a) Explain five advantages of mulching in crop production ( 5 mks)

(b) Outline five activities that may be undertaken in organic farming ( 5 mks)

(c) Discuss ten benefits a farmer is likely to get using vegetative propagation in production of oranges ( 10 mks)

  1. (a)Explain ten roles of a farm manager in agricultural production ( 10 mks)

(b) Describe five roles of agricultural based women groups in farming ( 5 mks)

(c) Describe land preparation and planting in carrot production ( 5 mks)

Year 2009 Agriculture Paper 2
Section A (30 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. Study the table below and fill in the missing words ( 3 mks)

Description Cattle Pigs Poultry
Young from birth/ hatching to weaning ……….. ………….. Chick
Young female before first parturition ……….. Gilt …………
Mature male for breeding Bull …………. …………..

  1. Name two viral diseases that affect each of the following livestock:
    (a) Cattle ( 1 mk)

(b) Poultry ( 1 mk)

  1. Name one intermediate host for each of the following livestock parasites
    (a) Liver fluke (Fasciola spp) ( ½ mk)

(b) Tapeworm (Taenia spp) ( ½ mk)

  1. Give four reasons for breeding a lamb on colostrums ( 2 mks)
  2. State four advantages of artificial calf rearing in dairy cattle management
    ( 2 mks)
  3. State four harmful effects of tsetse flies ( Glossina spp) in livestock ( 2 mks)
  4. Why is riddling essential in sheep management ( 1 mk)
  5. Give four reasons for steaming up in dairy cattle management ( 2 mks)
  6. State four limitations of using hydroelectric power on the farm ( 2 mks)
  7. Give two reasons for maintaining a wheelbarrow in good working condition
    ( 1 mk)
  8. Differentiate between the following tools
    (a) Bastard file and rasp file ( 1 mk)

(b) Copying saw and hacksaw ( 1 mk)

  1. Name two livestock diseases that are caused by protozoa ( 1 mk)
  2. State four ways of restraining cattle during routine management ( 2 mks)
  3. What is meant by the following terms as used in livestock health:

(a) Incubation period ( 1 mk)

(b) Mortality rate ( 1 mk)

  1. State two conditions that may inhibit milk let- down during milking
    ( 1 mk)
  2. Give four reasons for rearing indigenous cattle in marginal areas of Kenya
    ( 2 mks)
  3. Why are the following conditions maintained during artificial incubation of eggs in poultry production?

(a) Proper ventilation ( 1 mk)

(b) Relative humidity at 60% ( 1 mk)

SECTION B ( 20 MKS)

Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. The diagrams labeled A and B below illustrate two different milking techniques
    Study them and answer the questions that follow

(a) Identify the appropriate techniques for milking ( 1 mk)

(b) Describe the procedure of milking technique in (a) above ( 2 mks)
(c) State two disadvantages of using a wrong milking technique ( 2 mks)

  1. The diagram below is an illustration of an egg. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.

(a) Name the parts labelled B, C, D and F ( ½ mk)

B                                   ( ½ mk)
C                                   ( ½ mk)
D                                   ( ½ mk)
F                                   ( ½ mk)

(b) State two qualities of the part labeled A that should be considered when selecting eggs for incubation ( 2 mks)

(c) What is the function of the part labelled E in a fertilized egg? ( 1 mk)

  1. The diagram below illustrates a hoof of a sheep. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow

(a) Name the routine management practice that should be carried out on the hoof illustrated above ( 1 mk)

(b) State two reasons for carrying out the management practice in (a) above
( 2 mks)

  1. The following diagram illustrates a symptom of a disease in poultry. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow. (a) Identify
    (i) The disease; ( ½ mks) (ii) The causal organism ( ½ mks) (b) Apart from lesions, state two other symptoms of the disease ( 2 mks) (c) State two control measures for the disease ( 2 mks)
  2. Below is an illustration of livestock management equipment. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow.

(a) Identify the equipment ( 1 mk)

(b) State the use of the equipment ( 1 mk)

SECTION C (40 MARKS)
Answer any TWO questions from this section in the spaces provided after questions 25

  1. (a) Describe ten signs of ill- health in livestock ( 10 mks)
    (b) Describe the process of digestion in the following sections in the alimentary canal of a non- ruminant animal:

(i) Mouth; ( 1 mk)

(ii) Stomach ( 3 mks)

(iii) Small intestines ( 6 mks)

  1. (a) Outline five benefits of using biogas as a source of power on the farm
    ( 5 mks)
    (b) Give five advantages of using a sub soiler in seedbed preparation ( 5 mks)

(c) Explain five factors that a farmer should consider when sitting a bee hive to prevent swarming of bees
( 10 mks)

  1. (a) Describe the life cycle of a named tapeworm ( Taenia spp) (10 mks)
    (b) Describe the process of egg formation in the reproduction system of hen

AGRICULTURE
PAPER 1-2010

SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Give two disadvantages of intensive system of farming. (1 mark)
  2. List four methods of farming. (2 marks)
  3. Give the meaning of the following terms:
    (a) nitrogen fixation into the soil; (1 mark)
    (b) phosphorus fixation in loss of soil fertility. (1 mark)
  4. Give four reasons for keeping livestock health records on the farm. (2 marks)
  5. Explain the relationship between scarcity and choice as used in
    agricultural economics. (2 marks)

6 State two reasons for land fragmentation in Kenya. (1 mark)

  1. Give four advantages of individual owner operator tenure system as
    practiced in Kenya. (2 marks)
  2. State four features that should be considered when choosing water
    pipes for use on the farm. (2 marks)
  3. Give four reasons for treating water for use on the farm. (2 marks)
    1. Name four statutory boards that are involved in the marketing of crop
      produce in Kenya. (2 marks)
  4. State four marketing functions of Kenya Co-operative Creameries
    (K .C .C.). (2 marks)
  5. Give two reasons for carrying out each of the following operations in
    land preparation:
    (a) rolling; (1 mark)
    (b) levelling. (1 mark)
  6. Name three recommended practices that should be carried out when
    Clearing the bush during land preparation. (1½ marks)
  7. State five advantages of zero grazing. (2½ marks)
  8. Give four factors that would determine the stage at which a crop is
    harvested. (2 marks)
  9. Name two classes of weeds on the basis of each of the following:
    (a) growth cycle; (1 mark)
    (b) plant morphology. (1 mark)

SECTION B (20 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

17 Below is a diagram of a weed. Study the diagram carefully and answer the questions that follow.

(a) Identify the weed illustrated above.                             (½ mark)                                                              
(b) Why is the weed illustrated above difficult to control?          (1 mark)                                                      
(c) State four ways in which the weed can be controlled in a 
              field of maize.                                                 (2 marks)

18 The table below shows pH values of different soil samples. Study it
and answer the questions that follow.
Soil Sample pH value
S2 4
S3 5
S4 6
S5 7
S6 8
S7 9
S8 10
(a) Which soil sample has the highest acidity? (½ mark)
(b) State two ways in which the pH value of sample S8 can
be lowered. (1 mark)
(c) Which of the above soil samples is suitable for growing tea? (½ mark)

  1. Explain how agroforestry tree seeds should be prepared after collection
    in readiness for planting. (4 marks)
  2. (a) The diagrams below represent two ways in which a crop was pruned.
    Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow. (i) Which diagram represents the correct way of pruning? (1/2 mark)
    (ii) Give a reason for your answer in (i) above. (1 mark)
    (b) State two ways in which pruning assists in controlling crop
    diseases. (1mark)
  3. On 1st January 2009, Kaburu Farm started farm operations with
    Ksh 30,000 cash. During the month, the farm made the following
    transactions. Study the transactions and prepare a cash analysis for
    Kaburu Farm for the month of January. (5 ½ marks)
    Date Transaction Amount Kshs.
    05/01/09 Livestock sales 80,000
    08/01/09 Crop sales 50,000
    15/01/09 Bought seed for planting 7,500
    20/01/09 Paid K .F.A. for fertilizer 16,400
    25/01/09 Bought livestock feeds 50,000
    30/01/09 Paid wages for planting & weeding 56,000
    3 1/01/09 Received cash from K.C.C. for milk 120,000
    delivery
    31/01/09 Paid transport charges for milk 9,000
    Delivery
    1. (a) What do the figures 18:46: 10 on a fertilizer bag represent? (1½ marks)
      (b) Calculate the quantity of filler materials in the fertilizer in (a) above. (1 mark)

SECTION C (40 marks)
Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided after question 25.

  1. (a) Explain eight factors that can encourage soil erosion. (8 marks)
    (b) Describe the seven management practices that should be
    carried out on a vegetable nursery after sowing seeds until the
    seedlings are ready for transplanting. (7 marks)
    (c) State five soil factors that should be considered when selecting
    a crop to grow in an area. (5 marks)
    1. (a) Outline five ways in which high temperature affects agricultural production in Kenya. (5 marks)
      (b) (i) Explain four precautions that should be observed when
      harvesting cotton. (4 marks)
      (ii) Describe the harvesting of sugar cane. (3 marks)
      (c) Explain eight factors that should be considered when planning
      to set up a farm business. (8 marks)
  2. (a) Explain six physical methods that can be used to control crop
    pests on the farm. (6 marks)
    (b) Describe the production of bulb onions under the following sub-headings:
    (i) field management; (4marks)
    (ii) harvesting. (3 marks)
    (c) Explain seven factors that influence seed rates in crop
    production. (7 marks)

AGRICULTURE
PAPER 2-2010

SECTION A (30 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Name the causal agent of anaplasmosis disease in cattle. (½ mark)
  2. List four materials that can be used in constructing a Kenya
    Top Bar Hive. (2 marks)
  3. (a) Name two breeds of dairy cattle that originated from the
    Channel Islands. (I mark)
    (b) Give the distinguishing colour for each of (he following tweeds
    of livestock:
    (i) chinchilla rabbit: (½ mark)
    (ii) toggenburg goat. (½ mark)
  4. State four reasons for castration in pig production. (2 marks)
  5. State four characteristics of roughage livestock feeds. (2 marks)
  6. State two functions of the crop in poultry digestive system. (I mark)
  7. State four roles of worker bees in a colony. (2 marks)
  8. Give four reasons for controlling livestock diseases. (2 marks)
  9. State two control measures for fowl pox disease in poultry. (1 mark)

10 State one function for each of the following:
(a) shovel; (½ mark)
(b) strip cup. (½ mark)

  1. Give three reasons for carrying out maintenance practices on a mower. (1½ marks)
  2. Give three limitations of using solar power on the farm (1½ marks)
  3. Why is it important to have a thermostat on a cooling system of a tractor
    engine? (1 mark)
  4. Give two advantages of using a disc plough over a mouldboard plough in
    primary cultivation. (1 mark)
  5. Name four tools that are used when laying concrete blocks during
    construction of a wall. (2 marks)
  6. Why is it necessary to have guard rails in a farrowing pen? (1 mark)
  7. Give two reasons for having a footbath in a cattle dip. (1 mark)
  8. Distinguish between the following practices as used in livestock production:
    (a) crutching and ringing in sheep management; (2 marks)
    (b) cropping and harvesting in fish farming. (2 marks)
  9. Give three ways in which infectious diseases can spread from one livestock
    to another within a farm. (1½ marks)

SECTION B (20 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. The following illustrations show the behaviour of chicks in a brooder. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow.

(a) Explain the cause of behaviour observed in chicks for each of the illustrations labeled A B and C. (3 marks)
(b) Give a reason for making the brooder wall round in shape. (1 mark)

  1. The diagram below shows the reproductive system of a cow. Study it
    carefully and answer the questions that follow. (a) Name the parts labelled F and H. (1 mark)
    (b) Give two functions of the part labelled G. (2 marks)
    (c) Give the role of the part labelled J. (1 mark)
  2. Below are diagrams of internal parasites. Study them carefully and
    answer the questions that follow. (a) Identify the parasites labelled K and L. (1 mark)
    (b) Name the developmental stage of the parasite labelled K in
    cattle muscles. (½ mark)

(c) Outline the procedure of handling a heifer when administering a liquid deworming drug to control the parasites illustrated above. (2½ marks)

  1. Below is a diagram of a farm structure for storing grains. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow. (a) Identify the farm structure illustrated above. (½ mark)
    (b) State the function of the part labelled M. (½ mark)
    (c) State two maintenance practices that should be carried out on
    the farm structure illustrated above in readiness for grain storage(1 mark)
  2. Below is a diagram of a knapsack sprayer. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.

(a) Name the parts labelled N, P, Q and R. (2 marks)
(b) State one function of the part labelled S. (1 mark)

  1. The diagram below illustrates the general shape of a cattle breed. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    Tail Head
    end

(a) Identify the type of breed illustrated by the above shape. (1/2 mark)

(b) Give an example of a breed in (a) above.                      (½ mark)                                                              

(c) State four physical characteristics of the type of breed identified
in (a) above. (2 marks)

SECTION C (40 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after
question 28.
26 (a) Outline five advantages of artificial insemination in cattle
management. (5 marks)
(b) Describe ten signs of trypanosomiasis (Nagana) disease in
livestock. (10 marks)

    (c) Explain five functions of water in nutrition            (5 marks)
  1. (a) State the function of any six parts of a zero grazing unit in
    dairy farming. (6 marks)
    (b) Explain how the power transmitted from a tractor engine is made available for use on the farm under the following subheadings:
    (i) propeller shaft; (2 marks)
    (ii) power take off (P.T.O) shaft; (2 marks)
    (iii) hydraulic system. (2 marks)
    (c) Explain eight ways in which ticks can be controlled on a
    livestock farm (8 marks)
  2. (a) Describe ten physical characteristics a poultry farmer would
    use to identify poor layers from a flock of hens. (10 marks)
    (b) (i) Outline three characteristics of clean milk. (3 marks)
    (ii) Explain seven factors that affect milk composition in
    dairy farming. (7 marks)
    ( 10 mks)

443/1
AGRICULTURE
Paper 1
Oct./Nov 2011
2 hours

SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. (a) Name two field management practices that are carried out to obtain
    optimum plant population in a crop field. (1 mark)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(b) Explain how each of the practices named in (a) above achieves optimum
plant population. (1 mark)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Give two examples for each of the following types of costs incurred in broiler production.
    (a) Variable cost; (1 mark)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
    (b) Fixed costs; (1 mark)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. State four disadvantages of mono cropping in crop production (2 marks)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  3. Give three reasons for early seedbed preparation. (1 ½ marks)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  4. State two ways in which crop rotation controls weeds (1 mark)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  5. Outline four qualities of a mother plant from which vegetative propagation materials should be obtained. (2 marks)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  6. Give three factors that should be considered when choosing the type of labour to use on the farm. (1 ½ marks)
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  7. State the use of each of the following in farm accounting:
    (a) Balance sheet; (1/2 mark)
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
    (b) Inventory; (1/2 mark)
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
    (c) Cash book; (1/2 mark)
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  8. State four functions of Agricultural Society of Kenya (A.S.K) (2 marks)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  9. How does leaching lead to loss of soil fertilities? (1/2 mark)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  10. Give two reasons for imposing quarantine on imported planting materials. (1 mark)
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
  11. State four ways of controlling bean anthrancnose disease. (2 marks)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  12. List four post-harvest practices that are carried out in maize production. (2 marks)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  13. Name two types of non-competitive markets. (1 mark)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  14. Name four settlement schemes that the Kenyan Government started as a result of the success of the million Acre Scheme. (2 marks)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  15. Give a weed for each case, which has the following effect on cattle:
    (a) Poisoning; (½ mark)
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
    (b) Tainting milk when eaten before milking (½ mark)
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  16. A part from training and extension services, state four other agricultural support services the Kenyan government provides to a maize farmers. (2 marks)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  17. State three methods of harvesting trees in agro-forestry. (1 ½ marks)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  18. Give three maintenance practices for trees in agro-forestry. (1 ½ marks)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

SECTION B (20 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. The diagram below illustrates a seed potato prepared for planting. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow:

(a) Name the practice used in preparing the seed potato above for planting.(1 mark)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(b) Describe the procedure followed in preparing seed potatoes for planting. (3 marks)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. The diagrams below shows a set up of an experiment to study an aspect of soil. The set
    up was left undisturbed for five hours. Study it and answer the questions that follow.

(a) What was the aim of the experiment? (1 mark)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(b) State one observation that was made in each of the flasks labeled C and D.
C……………………………………………………………………. (1/2 mark)
D…………………………………………………………………….. (½ mark)

(c) Give a reason for each of your answers in (b) above.
C………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. (1 mark)

D……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (1 mark)

  1. Below is a graphical representation of a law in agricultural economics. Study the graph carefully and answer the questions that follows:

(a) Identify the law illustrated by the graph. (1/2 mark)
……………………………………………………………………………………….

(b) Explain how each additional unit of fertilizer input relates to the total output of maize in phase II and III.
Phase II…………………………………………………………………….. (1 mark)
………………………………………………………………………………………

Phase III………………………………………………………………….(1 mark)
…………………………………………………………………………………

(c) State the importance of the law identified in (i) above to the maize farmer. (1 mark)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. The following information was extracted from Makueni Farm Records for the financial year ending on 30th June 2009. Study it and prepare a profit and loss account for the farm.
    (3 marks)
    Rent received Sh. 10,000
    Egg sale Sh. 60,000
    Repair of tractor Sh. 30,000
    Opening valuation Sh.80,000
    Interest on Bank loan Sh. 20,000
    Tax paid Sh. 40,000
    Closing valuation Sh. 90,000
    Purchase on farm input Sh. 90,000
    Debts received from farmers co-op society Sh.100,000
    Maize sales Sh. 55,000
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. The diagram below illustrates a grazing system. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follows.

(a) Identify the grazing system illustrated above. (1/2 mark)
…………………………………………………………………………………………..
(b) State five advantages of grazing system illustrated above. (2 ½ mark)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. The diagram is an illustration of a weed. Study it and answer the questions that follow.

(a) Identify the weed. (1/2 mark)
………………………………………………………………………………….
(b) State two harmful effects of the illustrated above. ( 2 marks)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

SECTION C (40 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 28.

  1. (a) Describe how water is treated to remove solid impurities ( 5 marks)
    (b) Give a reason for each of the farm records kept on a dairy farm. (5 marks)
    (c) Describe the production of cabbages under the following sub-headings:
    (i) Seedbed preparation; (3 marks)
    (ii) Transplanting of seedlings (7 marks)
  2. (a) Describe the effects of pests on maize in the field (6 marks)
    (b) (i) Describe the procedure of harvesting pyrethrum. (4 marks)
    (ii) Explain the precautions that should be observed during the harvesting
    of pyrethrum. (3 marks)
    (c) Describe the cultural methods of controlling soil erosion. (7marks)
  3. (a) Explain five ways in which biotic factors influence crop production
    in agriculture. (5 marks)
    (b) Describe the properties of nitrogenous fertilizers. (6 marks)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

443/2
AGRICULTURE
Paper 2
Oct./ Nov.2011
2 hours

SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. State four maintenance practices for a disc plough (2 marks)
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. Name three methods that are used in selection of breeding stock in livestock production. (1 ½ marks)
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  3. State four advantages of using animals instead of tractor as a source of power on the farm. (2 marks)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  4. Name one livestock diseases that is transmitted by each of the following parasites:
    (a)Blue ticks; (½ mark)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………
    (b) brown ear ticks; (½ mark)
    ……………………………………………………………………………………..
    (c) Tsetse flies; (1/2 mark)
    ……………………………………………………………………………………
  5. State four methods of controlling round worms (Ascaris sp) in livestock (2 marks)
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  6. Give the meaning of the following terms as used in livestock health:
    (a) Disease; (1 mark)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(b) Vaccination; (1 ½ mark)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. State three maintenance practices for a tractor battery. (1 ½ marks)
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. Name the type of breed into which each of the following breeds of cattle are classified:
    (a) Aberdeen angus;
    ………………………………………………………………………. (1/2 mark)
    (b) Guernsey;
    ……………………………………………………………………… (1/2 mark)
    (c) Sahiwal;
    ………………………………………………………………………. (1/2 mark)
    (d) Red poll.
    ……………………………………………………………………… (1/2 mark)
  3. Give two ways in which proper nutrition helps to control livestock diseases. (1 mark)
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  4. List four categories of livestock diseases. (2 marks)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  5. Name two breeding systems that can increase the frequency of high milk production genes in indigenous cattle. (1 mark)
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  6. Name two bloodless methods of castration in lambs. (1 mark)
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  7. Give the meaning of the following terms as used in livestock breeding:
    (a) Recessive gene; (1 mark)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
    (b) Epistasis; (1 mark)
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  8. State four signs that indicate that a doe is about to kindle. (2 marks)
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
  9. Name two developmental stages of a liverfluke (Fasciopla sp) which occur in the fresh water snail (Limnaea sp). (1 mark)
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  10. Name the strokes in a four stroke cycle engine (2 marks)
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  11. State four signs of mite attack in poultry. (2 marks)
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  12. State three advantages of natural feeding in calf rearing. (1 ½ marks)
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

SECTION B (20 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. A dairy farmer is required to prepare 100kg of dairy meal containing 20% digestible crude protein (D.C.P). Using the person’s square method. Calculate the quantity of soya bean (40% D.C.P) and rice (16% D.C.P) the farmer requires for the dairy meal. (4 marks)
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. Below is a illustration of a camel. Study it and answer the questions that follow.

(a) Identify the camel species illustrated above. (1/2 mark)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(b) Name three products that farmers obtain from the camel species illustrated above.
(1 ½ marks)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(c) Give two reasons why the camel species illustrated above is able to survive in its natural habitat. (2 marks)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. The diagram below represents farm tools and. Equipment. Study them and answer the questions that follow. (a) Identify the tools/ equipment labeled J, K and M.
    J ……………………………………………………………………………… (1/2 mark).
    K…………………………………………………………………………………… (1/2 mark)
    M…………………………………………………………………………………… (1/2 mark)

(b) State one use for each of the tool / equipment labeled K and L.
K…………………………………………………………………………… (1 mark)
L……………………………………………………………………………. (1 mark)
(c) Give two maintenance practices for the equipment labeled K. (1 mark)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. The illustration below shows a practice carried out to prevent mastitis infection in a dairy cow.

(a) Identify the practice. (1/2 mark)
…………………………………………………………………………………………

(b) At what stage is the practice carried out? (1/2 mark)
…………………………………………………………………………………………..
(c) State two other practices that are carried out on the udder to prevent mastitis infection. (2 marks)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. The diagram below shows the digestive system of cattle. Study it and answer the questions that follow.

(a) Name the parts labeled N, P and Q.
N………………………………………………………………… (1/2 mark)
P…………………………………………………………………. (1/2 mark)
Q ………………………………………………………………… (1/2 mark)

(b) State one function for each parts labeled S and T
S………………………………………………………………… (1 mark)
T………………………………………………………………… (1 mark)

(c) Give one enzyme produced by each of the parts labeled R and S.
R………………………………………………………………… (1/2 mark)
S………………………………………………………………… (1/2 mark)

SECTION C (40 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 26.

  1. (a) Explain the factors considered when culling livestock. (5 marks)
    (b) Describe poultry management under the following sub-headings:
    (i) causes of stress; (8 marks)
    (ii) control measures for cannibalism (7 marks)
  2. (a) Describe the feeding practices in artificial rearing of a dairy calf. (10 marks)
    (b) Describe Newcastle disease under the following sub-headings:
    (i) causal organism; (1 mark)
    (ii) signs of infection; (7 marks)
    (iii) control measures; (2 marks)
  3. (a) Describe the uses of fences on the farm. (10 marks)
    (b)Give five harmful effects of liver flukes in sheep rearing. (5 marks)
    (c) State the differences between a diesel engine and a petrol engine (5 marks)

KCSE YEAR 2011 PAPER 2
AGRICULTURE
SECTION A (30 marks)

  1. Maintenance for a disc plough
    • Cleaning after use
    • Painting the frame
    • Greasing the moving parts.
    • Repair/replace broken/worn out parts
    • Piling the metal parts on long storage
    • Proper storage. (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  2. Selection of breeding stock
    • Progeny testing
    • Mass selection
    • Contemporary comparison (3 x ½= 1 ½ Marks)
  3. Advantages of using animal power
    • Animals are cheap to acquire.
    • Require less skilled labour
    • Can be used on small labour
    • Are appropriate in very steep areas. (4 x ½ =2 marks)
  4. (a). Blue ticks- Anaplasmosis
    (b). Brown ear ticks- E.C.F.
    ©. Tsetse flies –Trypanosomiasis (nagana) (3 x ½ = 1 ½ marks)
  5. Control methods for round worms.
    • Use of antihelmintics/drenehing
    • Rotational grazing
    • Proper disposal of faeces/hygiene
    • Ploughing/burning of pasture (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  6. (a). Disease: Any deviation or alteration in the state of animal body or its
    organs which interferes with proper performance of its functions.
    (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
    (b). Vaccination: Is the administration of weakened or killed disease
    causing agent into animal to induce production antibodies for
    immunity against the disease. (2 x 1 = 2Marks)
  7. Maintenance practices for a battery.
    • Topping with distilled water to maintain correct level of electrolyte.
    • Cleaning the terminals and smearing them with grease to prevent corrosion.
    • Tightly fix battery in a box to prevent spillage and damages.
    • Regular charging.
    • Empty contents and turn it upside down on long storage.
    • Should be fitted correctly on the tractor. (3 x ½ = 1 ½ marks)
  8. Breed Type
    (a). Aberdeen Angus Beef
    (b). Guernsey Dairy
    (c). Sahiwal Dual purpose
    (d). Red Poll Dual Purpose (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  9. Proper nutrition
    • Prevents nutrient deficiency diseases.
    • Ensures resistance against disease infection (2 x ½ = 1 mark)
  10. Categories of livestock disease
    • Bacterial
    • Protozoa n
    • Viral
    • Nutritional (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  11. • Upgrading
    • Cross breeding (2 x ½ = 1 marks)
  12. Bloodless castration methods.
    • Use of rubber ring and elastrator
    • Use of burdizzo (2 x ½ = 1 marks)
  13. (a). Receive gene : An allele whose phenotypic expression is masked by a
    dominant allele in heterozygous condition.
    (b). Epistasis: Gene interaction in which the expression of some alleles
    is blocked (masked) (2 x 1=2 marks)
  14. Signs of kindling in a doe
    • Nest building
    • Plucking of fur from the belly.
    • Lose of appetite.
    • Restlessness. (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  15. Developmental stages of liver flukes in a fresh water snail.
    • Sporocyst
    • Cercaria
    • Redia (2 x ½ = 1 marks)
  16. Four stroke of a tractor engine
    • Induction
    • Compression
    • Power
    • Exhaust (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  17. Sign mite attack in poultry
    • Irritation/scratching of the body
    • Anaemia
    • Presence of mites below the plumage in patches.
    • Falling off of feathers.
    • Dermatitis due to burrowing effects.
    • Formation of crusts. (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  18. Advantages of natural feeding in calf rearing
    • Calf takes milk at body temperature.
    • Milk is free from contamination
    • It prevents scouring in calves.
    • Milk is provided libitum. (3 x ½ = 1 ½ marks)
  19. Rice Rice
    16% DCP 20 Parts Soya bean Soya bean
    40% DCP 04 parts;
    24 parts in total
    Rice – 20/24 x 100 = 83.3 kg
    Soya bean – 4/24 x 100 = 16.7 kg
  20. (a). Dromedary (Camelus dromedaries)
    (b). Milk
    • Meat
    • Transport services
    • Hides (3 x ½ = marks)
  21. (a). J- Watering Can
    K-Milk Churn/Milk can
    M- Mason’s Trowel (2 x 1 =2 marks) (b). K-Temporary storage of milk/holding milk during
    transportation.
    L- Driving nails into wood/removing nails from wood.
    (3 x ½ =1 ½ marks)
    (c). – Cleaning after use
    • Painting with aluminum paint to prevent rusting
      • Repair /replace broken/worn out parts
    • Sterilize the equipment (2 x ½ = 1 mark)
  22. (a). Dry therapy (½mark)

(b). At the end of drying off. (½ marks )

( c).- Teat dipping

  • Complete milking
  • Proper milking technique
  • Applying milking jelly after milking. (2 x1= 2 marks)
  1. (a). N- Masum
    P- Rumen
    Q- Gall bladder (3 x ½ = 1 ½ marks) (b). S- Digestion absorption of food
    T- Absorption of water (2 x 1= 2 marks) (c). R- Lipase/Trysin/amylase
    S- Peptidase/Maltase/Sucrase (imertase)
    /lactase, (Erepsin) (2 X ½ = 2 marks)

SECTION C

  1. (a). Factors considered when culling livestock.
    • Cull livestock of:
    • Poor age;
    • Physical deformalities.
    • Hereditary defects ;
    • Infertility;
    • Poor mothering ability;
    • Poor quality products;
    • Low Production;
    • Bad temperament
    • To avoid inbreeding; (1 x 5=5 marks)
    (b). Description of poultry management under:
    (i). Cause of stress
    • Any sudden change in routine.
    • Parasite infestation i.e disease outbreak
    • Lack of food and water
    • Strangers and predictors in the bird house.
    • Sudden noise such as passing tractors and thunder.
    • Poor handling of birds during routine practices.
    • Overcrowding which leads to competition for space.
    • Climatic changes
    • Poor lighting in poultry.
    • Inadequate laying nests (1×8=8 marks)
    (ii). Control measures for cannibalism
    • Control external parasites.
    • Keep birds busy by hanging green leaves or vegetables in the house.
    • Feed the birds on a balanced diet.
    • Provide adequate laying nests.
    • Provide dim lights in the brooder.
    • Keep birds as per the age group.
    • Debeak hens which others.
    • Cull perpetual cannibals (7×1=7 marks)
  2. (a). Feeding Dairy Calf:
    • Train the calf to feed from a bucket (bucket feeding).
    • Ensure the calf suckles the cow within the first eight hours to get colostrums.
    • Feed the calf on colostrums, for the first 4 days.
    • Introduce the feeding of whole milk or milk substitutes after the fourth day.
    • Feed the calf 2-3 times per day for the first 4 weeks.
    • Feed the calf on the correct amount of milk upto weaning time.
    • Provide adequate clean water from the third week.
    • Feed the calf with warm milk at regular intervals.
    • Introduce palatable dry feeds such as concentrates (calf pellets) and good quality cut grass from the third week.
    • Provide mineral supplements or licks.
    • Any change in feeding should be done gradually to avoid nutritional disorders.
    • Observe hygiene when feeding (10 x1=10 marks)
    (b). Newcastle disease
    (i). – Casual organization
    – Virus (1×1=1 marks)
    (ii). Signs of attack:
    • Difficult in breathing.
    • Beaks remain wide open and necks strained.
    • Dullness.
    • Bird stand with eyes closed all the time.
    • Loss of appetite.
    • Nasal discharge which force the bird to shake their heads to clear it.
    • Birds walk in a staggering motion since the nervous system is affected.
    • Often the bird have their heads and wings drooping.
    • Birds produce watery greenish diarrhea.
    • Eggs laid have soft shells. (iii). Control Measures: • Vaccination during the first six weeks and then two to three months later.
    • Quarantine.
    • Kill the infected birds and burn them.
    • Obtain stock from reputable source.
  3. (a). Use of fences in the farm:
    • Mark boundaries.
    • Help to avoid boundary disputes.
    • Keep off wild animals and intruders from outside the farm.
    • Enable the farmer to practice mixed farming.
    • Facilitates rotational grazing.
    • Control movement of animals and people preventing formation of unnecessary paths in the farm.
    • Control the spread of parasites and diseases by keeping off wild and stray animals from the farm.
    • Help the farmer to isolate or confine animals requiring special attention.
    • Enable the farmer to control breeding by rearing different animals in different paddocks.
    • Hedges act as windbreakers.
    • Add beauty to farm.
    • Add value.
    • For privacy. (10 x1 = 10 marks) (b). Harmful effects of liver fluke; in sheep • Digestive upset due to blocking of bile duct.
    • Emaciation/recumbency leading to death.
    • Anaemia due to destruction of liver tissue.
    • Swollen lower jaw/oedema in the jaws.
    • Swollen abdomen. (5 x 1 = 5marks)
    ( c). Difference between petrol an diesel engine.
    Diesel Engine Petrol Engine
    Use diesel Use petrol
    Ignited by compression Ignited by spark plugs.
    Compression ratio is high Compression ratio is low.
    Less efficient in fuel burning More efficient in fuel burning
    Only air is compressed Air fuel mixture is compressed
    Only air is compressed Air –fuel mixture is compressed
    Has injector pump Has a carburetor

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