1. List five characteristics of living organisms                                               

2. Give 3 differences between plants and animals                                           

3. Name and define the two major branches of biology                                  

4. Explain the importance of the following to living organisms                     

    i) Respiration

   ii) Excretion

  iii) Reproduction

5. A motor vehicle is able to move and break down fuel to carbon (IV) oxide and water, yet it is not classified as a living organism.  Name three characteristics of living organisms that are not shown by a motor vehicle                          

6. Mention any three reasons why we study the science of Biology             

7. What is Biology?                                                                                        

8. Mention any 4 specialized branches of biology                                         

9. a) List three apparatus used during collection of specimen in the field.  For each apparatus, briefly explain its use                                                              

    b) What precautions must students make when collecting specimens in the field?


1. What is classification?

2. Give three reasons why classification is necessary.

3. What is a species?

4. Black jack (Bidens pilosa) belongs to the family Compositae.  What is its:

    i) Genus?

   ii) Species

5. State the kingdoms into which living organisms are placed.  In each case, give an example

6. State three external factors used in classification of    (a) Plants (b) Animals

7. State the rules that govern binomial nomenclature

8. State the role of a hand lens in biology

9. A form one student made a drawing of a molar tooth.  The length of his drawing was 12.45cm.   If the linear magnification of the drawing was X5, calculate the actual length of the tooth

10. Distinguish between taxonomy and a taxon

11. Draw a leaf with the following characteristics

      i) Compound, bipinnate with terminal leaflet

     ii) Simple, bilobed tip with serrated margin


1. What is a cell?

2. Name two specialized cells in:  a) Plants b) Animals

3. Give three properties of the cell membrane

4. In an experiment on cell size estimation, while using a light microscope, a specimen whose real size was 2.0 micrometers appeared to be 0.2mm under the microscope. If the eyepiece lens magnification of the microscope was X5, calculate the total magnification and hence the objective lens magnification of the microscope

5. When examining cells from an unidentified rabbit organ under an electron microscope, it is found out that most cells are rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and golgi bodies.  What does this one tell about the organ?

6. Define the following terms

     i) Tissue

    ii) Organ

   iii) Organ system

7. State two functions of centrioles

8. When preparing to see epidermal cells of the onion plants, the following steps are followed:   Give a reason for each step taken

      a) Peeling off a thin layer of the epidermis for use as a specimen

      b) Placing the epidermal layer in water in a slide

c) Adding iodine stain on the specimen before observing under the microscope

9. State 4 differences between a plant and an animal cell

10. Name the organelles responsible for the following functions

a) Secretion of hormones and enzymes

b) Synthesis and transport of proteins

c) Site for respiratory activities

11. A form one student trying to estimate the size of onion cells observed the following on a field of view of a microscope

He counted 20 cells across the field of view.  Calculate the size of one cell in micrometers. Show your working

12.  Give the functions of the following parts of a microscope:

  i) Coarse adjustment knob

       ii) Revolving nosepiece

      iii) Mirror

      iv) Fine adjustment knob

 v) Condenser

13.  Give three differences between a light microscope and electron microscope

14.  Draw a large labeled diagram of a plant cell as seen under a light microscope

 15.  Name five organelles that are not seen under a light microscope but can be seen using an

         electron microscope


1.  Explain the difference between:

     a) Turgor pressure and wall pressure

     b) Osmotic pressure and osmotic potential

2.  Name two plants and two animal processes in which diffusion plays an important role

3.  Name the process by which the following occurs:

     a) Molecules such as amino acids and glucose enters the body cell

     b) Glucose and mineral salts are reabsorbed into the blood in kidney tubules

     c) Water is absorbed from the soil by the root hairs

     d) Carbon (IV) oxide moves from the body cells to the blood capillaries

4.  Name the factors affecting the rate of diffusion

5.  Explain the following terms:

     a) Plasmolysis

     b) Crenation

6.  Explain why eating a meal with too much salt leads to the production of a small volume of concentrated urine

7.  Why is osmosis considered a special form of diffusion?

8.  How can a plasmolysed plant cell be made turgid again?

9.  Explain why a red blood cell when placed in distilled water will swell till it bursts

10.  State the factors that affect the rate of active transport

11. Explain what will happen to red blood cell when placed in a highly concentrated salt solution

12.  Give the role of active transport in animals

13.  Distinguish between plasmolysis and haemolysis

14.  Explain why fresh water protozoa like Amoeba do not burst when placed in distilled water

15. Addition of large amounts of salt to soil in which plants are growing kills the plants.  Explain


1. a) Define the term photosynthesis

    b) Briefly explain how the following factors affect the process of photosynthesis.

         i) Light intensity

        ii) Temperature

       iii) Carbon (IV) oxide concentration

       iv) Water availability

2. The diagram below shows a chloroplast as seen under an electron microscope

  1. Name the substance stored in the part marked B
  2. In which part of the diagram does the dark reaction take place?
  3. In which part does the light reaction take place? Briefly explain what happens in the light reaction giving the products formed

3. In an experiment, a leaf from a plant, which had been in the dark overnight, was boiled in water for a minute. It was then boiled in alcohol and washed in hot water Iodine solution was then added onto the leaf

a) What was the aim of the experiment?

b) Why was the leaf boiled in (i) Water (ii) Alcohol?

c) What observation was made on the leaf after adding iodine solution?  Give a reason for your answer

4.  How is a green leaf adapted to its function of photosynthesis?

5.  What is the importance of photosynthesis?


1.  Name the bonds present in the following foods:

     i) Sucrose ii) Proteins iii) Lipids

2.  In the test for a non-reducing sugar, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydrogen carbonate are used. State the functions of these two chemicals

3.  Complete the following word equation

    a) Glucose + Glucose                                                  

    b) Sucrose                                               Glucose +

4.  Define the term enzymes

5. a) List three properties of proteins

    b) Describe two major functions of proteins in the human body

6.  Give three main classes of carbohydrates.  In each case, give one example

7.  Explain 4 factors that affect enzyme activity

8.  Differentiate between competitive and non-competitive enzyme inhibitors

9.  From the equation below, name two properties of the enzyme shown

     Enzyme + Substrate                                Enzyme + Products

10.  Name three examples of polysaccharides


1.  Define the following terms:

  1. Ingestion
  2. Assimilation
  3. Absorption
  4. Digestion
  5. Egestion

2.  Describe the internal structure of the mammalian tooth

3.  What are dental caries?

4. a) Explain why some enzymes in the alimentary canal are produced in their inactive forms

    b) Give two examples of such enzymes mentioned in a) above

5. Which type of tooth is involved in piercing and killing of prey in carnivorous mode of feeding?

6.  Why do herbivores have an elaborate caecum?

7. List four importance of water in human nutrition

8. a) What is the role of roughage in the human diet?

    b) Give three sources of roughage in the human diet

9. State and explain five factors determining energy requirements in humans

10. List the various accessory glands of the alimentary canal

11. Why does the action of bile on fats not considered an enzyme action?

12. Name the specialized muscles that control the entry and exit of food in the stomach

13. a)  Name three types of salivary glands found in the mouth of humans

      b) State the role of saliva in digestion

14. Give three functions of hydrochloric acid in the stomach

15. Mention enzymes involved in digestion in the following parts of the mammalian alimentary canal.  In each case, state the substrate and the products formed

      a) Duodenum

      b) Ileum

16. What is the role of mucus in the gut?

17.  How is the molar tooth adapted to its function?

18. A certain animal has no incisors, no canines, 6 premolars and 6 molars in its upper jaw. In the lower jaw there are 6 incisors, 2 canines, 6 premolars and 6 molars. Write down its dental formula


1. Give three adaptations of the root hair cell

2. Mention and briefly explain the forces that help in condition of water from the root hair cells up the plant

3. a) What is translocation?

    b) Give three theories that explain the process of translocation

c) What is the role of the companion cells on the phloem tissue?

4. Name the process used in uptake of mineral salts in plants

5. Name and briefly explain the structural factors that affect the rate of transpiration

6. How is the arrangement of the vascular bundle in a monocot stem different from that of a dicot stem?

7. Briefly describe how water from soil is absorbed by root hair cells into the xylem tissue of the root


1. Why is transport important in animals?

2. Distinguish between the following terms

  1. Open and closed circulation
  2. Single and double circulation

3. Mention two other functions of mammalian blood other than transport of substances

4. How are the red blood cells suited to perform their functions?

5. Name the compound formed when haemoglobin combines with carbon (IV) oxide

6. Why are people with blood group O described as universal donors?

7. Briefly describe the blood clotting mechanism

8. What is meant by the following terms in relation to the mammalian heart?

  1. Systole
  2. Diastole

9. Why is blood in arteries under high pressure than in veins?

10.  Outline some adaptations of blood capillaries to their functions

11. Which blood vessels link the following parts of the body?

  1. Gut and liver
  2. Aorta and the kidneys
  3. Lungs and the heart
  4. Aorta and the alimentary canal.

12. Mention two disorders of the circulatory system

13. How do white blood cells fight pathogens that enter the body?

14. a) What is lymph?

b) How is it formed?

c) Mention three processes that aid in the flow of lymph

15. Differentiate between natural and artificial immunity

16. a) What is an allergy?

b) What causes allergic reactions in the body?


1. Mention three sites of gaseous exchange in plants

2. State three characteristics of gaseous exchange structures in plants

3. Briefly describe three theories that explain the mechanism of opening and closing of the stomata

4. How are the leaves of plants adapted to gaseous exchange?

5. How do the following aquatic plants carry out gaseous exchange?

  1. Floating types
  2. Emergent types
  3. Submerged forms

6. Why is gaseous exchange through mesophyll cells faster than other modes?


1. Mention three gaseous exchange surfaces in animals

2. Why does the gaseous exchange mechanism in unicellular organisms occur by simple diffusion?

3. Outline three features that adapt the gill to its function

4. Briefly explain how gases are taken in during breathing in insects

5. a) What are the gaseous exchange surfaces in adult frogs?

    b) Briefly explain gas intake through one of the surfaces mentioned in a) above

6. Explain the process of inhalation in humans

7. Mention 4 factors that affect the rate of breathing in animals

8.  Name the centre in the brain that controls the rate of breathing

9.  Mention and briefly explain 4 diseases that affect the breathing/gaseous exchange system

10. What are the advantages of breathing through the nose rather than the mouth in humans?

11. How is the trachea adapted to its function?

12. What is the difference between an air sac and an alveolus?


1. The equation below represents oxidation of a certain food substance

     2C5H98O6 + 145O2                             102 CO2 + 98H2O + Energy

a) Calculate the respiratory quotient (RQ)

      b) Suggests the possible food substrate

      c) Give a reason for your answer in b) above

2. How is a mitochondrion adapted to its functions as a site for respiration?

3. a) Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic respiration

    b) Give end products of (i) Aerobic respiration and (ii) Anaerobic respiration

    c) Briefly explain how anaerobic respiration is utilized in industries

    d) What factors affect the rate of respiration in animals?

4. What is the importance of respiratory quotient (RQ)?

5. Distinguish between obligate and facultative anaerobes

6. Why do obligate anaerobic die when exposed to plenty of oxygen?

7. The flow diagram below shows a summary of the process of respiration

                                         G                                  (i)   Ethanol + Energy + Carbon (IV) Oxide

Pyruvic Acid  


                     Kreb’s cycle      J                              (ii) Lactic Acid + Energy

             Carbon (IV) Oxide + Water + Energy

  1. Name the raw material/substrate labelled I
  2. Name the series of reactions labelled G
  3. What conditions lead to the reactions progressing at H and J
  4. Which groups of living organisms exhibit reactions (i) and (ii)?
  5. Where in the cell does process G and J take place?
  6. In which form is the energy produced stored?


1.  Mention three methods in which plants lose excretory products from their cells

2. What is meant by the following terms?

  1. Secretion
  2. Excretion
  3. Egestion

3. Give four excretory products of plants

4. a) What is the fluid secreted by sebaceous glands?

    b) Give two functions of the fluid mentioned in a) above

5.  What is the effect of insulin hormone on liver cells?

6.  Give the components of sweat

7.  Which portions of the nephron are found in the medulla region of the kidney?

8.  Name the process by which the glomerular filtrate is formed

9.  Give five homeostatic functions of the liver

10. Which hormones are involved in osmotic balance at the kidneys?  Briefly explain how each of the hormones mentioned control osmotic pressure of blood

11. Mentions 4 physiological mechanisms of temperature control during cold conditions

12. Give two modifications/adaptations of the nephron of desert animals explaining how each plays a role in osmoregulation

13. Which part of the brain controls osmotic balance in the mammalian body?

14. What causes gallstones?  How can they be controlled?

15. How is the proximal convoluted tubule adapted to its function?

16. Define the following terms

a) Vasodilation

 b) Vasoconstriction

17.  Briefly mention how the following organisms get rid of their excretory products

       a) Amoeba b) Marine fish


1. a) Briefly describe the general principles  used in classification of living organisms

    b) State the characteristics that are unique to the following kingdoms and phyla:

         i) Kingdom Monera     iv) Phylum Arthropoda

        ii) Kingdom Protoctista v) Kingdom Fungi

       iii) Phylum Chordata      vi) Division Bryophyta

2. State three characteristics or features that are used to classify the members of Phylum Arthropoda into their respective classes

3. Give the two subdivisions of the plant division Spermatophyta and in each case give their respective classes

4. a) What is a dichotomous key?

    b) Outline some of the features used in classification of:

         i) Plants

        ii) Animals


1. Define the following terms as used in ecology:

    a) Ecological niche

    b) Synecology

    c) Community

    d) Trophic level

    e) Carrying capacity

2. Why is the transfer of energy up the trophic levels not 100% efficient?

3. Mention three density-dependent interrelationships between organisms in an ecosystem

4. a) Name three methods used to estimate population of organisms in an ecosystem

    b) Briefly describe how one of the mentioned methods in a) above can be used in the estimation

    c) In an ecological study, form three students counted the number of snails in the school water pond. On the first day, they captured and marked 80 snails.  After five days they caught 74 snails out of which 52 had been marked.  Calculate the estimated snail population in the water

5. a) What is pollution?

    b) Outline four causes of the following kinds of pollution:

        i) Air pollution

       ii) Water pollution

      iii) Land/Soil pollution

6. Mention three ways in which the prey avoids the predator

7. In a certain ecosystem, the following information was found out about the organisms

    i) Sheep, termites and grasshoppers feed on grass available in the ecosystem

   ii) Vultures feed on dead leopards and humans both of which feed on sheep

  iii) Humans also feed on chicken which feed on grasshoppers

  iv) The chicken are fed on by mongoose while termites are fed on by lizards, a heron (a type of bird) and an Aardvaak (a type of mammal)

   a) Use the information above to construct a food web in the ecosystem

   b) From the food web identify the:

       i) The producer.

      ii) Primary consumers

     iii) Secondary consumers

     iv) Tertiary consumers

   c) Identify a group of organisms which are missing in the food web but very important in the ecosystem. Give examples of the organisms

8. Distinguish between a pyramid of numbers and a pyramid of biomass

9. Outline the habitat characteristics of:

    a) Halophytes

    b) Xerophytes

10. a) What is the causative agent for: i) Cholera ii) Typhoid

      b) Which control measure is the most suitable for the two diseases in a) above?

11. Mention three adaptations of the following parasites to their mode of living:

      i) Schistosoma spp

    ii) Ascaris lumbricodes


1. a) Why do living organisms reproduce?

    b) Name the two types of reproduction.  In each case identify 2 organisms exhibiting the type of reproduction

2. a) Give two types of cell division

    b) Give two roles of each of the types of cell division mentioned in a) above

    c) Outline 3 salient events that occur at Prophase I. What is the importance of this stage?

    d) Give 4 differences between the types of cell division mentioned in a) above

3. Briefly describe any of the asexual reproduction process in a named organism

4. What is meant by the following terms as used in sexual reproduction in plants?

  1. Perianth
  2. Monocarpous pistil
  3. Dioecius plant
  4. Essential parts of a flower
  5. A sessile flower
  6. A hermaphroditic flower

5. a) Name two types of pollination

    b) Outline 5 characteristics of an anemophilous flower

    c) What is meant by?

        i) Self sterility

       ii) Protandry and Protogyny

    d) What is the importance of the mechanisms mentioned in c) above

6. Briefly describe the events that occur after pollination

7. Mention three roles of fruits in plant reproduction

8. A student came across a fruit as shown in the diagram below



      i) What kind of fruit is this?

      ii) Identify part A

      iii) What is the mode of dispersal for the fruit?  Give a reason for your answer

      iv) State two characteristics of A that adapt the fruit to its mode of dispersal

9. Differentiate between a berry and a drupe

10. Name three forms of placentation seen in ovaries

11. Give three adaptive features of seed/fruits that are dispersed by:

i) Water

ii) Animals


1. Give the two types of fertilization seen in animals.  In each case give two advantages and two disadvantages of each

2. a) Name the gland located at the junction of the urethra and urinary bladder in male mammals

    b) Give the functions of the fluid produced by the gland mentioned a) above

3. Briefly describe the process of fertilization in mammals

4. Differentiate between a miscarriage, an abortion and a premature birth

5. Name the hormones involved in the following occurrences

    i) Labour during birth

    ii) Secondary sexual characteristics in males and females

    iii) Release of milk from the mammary glands

    iv) Thickening of the uterine wall and increase in blood supply to the endometrium

6. Differentiate between fraternal, identical and siamese twins

7. a) Mention three ways in which one can be infected by the HIV virus

    b) Name the causative agents of:

        i) Gonorrhoea

       ii) Syphilis

    c) Give two salient symptoms of the diseases mentioned in b) above

8. What are the advantages of asexual reproduction over sexual reproduction?


1. Distinguish between the terms growth and development

2. Draw/sketch and discuss the various phases of a typical population growth curve

3. a) What is meant by seed dormancy?

    b) Give four factors from within the seed that cause dormancy

4. a) Give and briefly explain three conditions necessary for germination

    b) Differentiate between the two types of germination

5. a) What causes secondary growth?

    b) What is the effect of primary and secondary growth?

    c) Give three primary tissues formed n a plant

6. a) What is apical dominance?

    b) What causes apical dominance?

    c) Give three roles of gibberellins in plant growth and development

    d) What is the role of cytokinins in seed dormancy?

7. a) Distinguish between complete and incomplete metamorphosis

    b) Give examples of animals exhibiting each of the types of metamorphosis identified in a) above

    c) Name two hormones that regulate growth and development in insects.  Give the role of each hormone mentioned


1. a) What is genetics?

    b) State the first law of inheritance

    c) Distinguish between continuous and discontinuous variation.  Give an example of each

2. Distinguish the following terms:

    a) Haploidy and diploidy

    b) Homozygosity and heterozygosity

3. What is meant by the following terms?

    a)Test cross

    b) Allele

    c) Hybrid vigour

    d) Phenotype

    e) Sex–linkage

4. In a breeding experiment, a plant with red flowers was crossed with another one with white flowers. All the offspring had pink flowers. Using the letter R to represent the gene for red and letter W for the gene of white colour:

   i) Work out the genotype of the F1 generation

   ii) What will be the phenotypic ratio of F2 generation if the F1 generation was selfed?

   ii) What type of genetic inheritance is shown by the experiment above?

5. A haemophiliac man marries a carrier woman for haemophilia.  What is the probability that their first born daughter will be haemophilic?  Show your working

6. Give and briefly explain some of the human diseases/disorders associated with:

  1. Non- disjunction type of  mutation
  2. Gene mutations

7. Why do haemophilia and colour blindness more frequent in male than female humans?

8. Briefly explain how the following gene mutations occur:

    i) Substitution

    ii) Inversion

    iii) Insertion

9. a) Give 4 applications of genetic knowledge to modern society

    b) What are transgenic organisms?

10. a) What is meant by the term evolution?

      b) Give the 5 evidences of organic evolution

      c) Explain any two of the evidences mentioned in a) above

11. Give the key difference between Larmark’s and Darwin’s theories of evolution

12. What two events that justify natural selection in action in nature today?


1. Define the following terms:-

    a) Response

    b) Stimulus

    c) Coordination

2. Explain the principle behind:

  1. Bending of a short/ plant coleoptile towards a unidirectional source of light
  2. Coiling of plant with weaker stems around stronger stems
  3. Growth of a root of seedling towards the ground

3. Identify the following responses of microscopic organisms/cells:

  1. Spirogyra moving towards an area of high light concentration
  2. Amoeba moving towards an area of high oxygen concentration
  3. Paramecium moving towards an area with favourable temperatures
  4. Movement of a male gamete towards a female gamete

4. a) Give two structural differences between a sensory and nerve motor neurone

    b) What is the function of the following parts of a nerve cell?

         i) Nodes of Ranvier

         ii) Myelin sheath

         iii) Schwann cell

5. What is the name give to the neurotransmitter substance at the synapse?

6. Give three events controlled by the following parts of the brain:

  1. Cerebrum
  2. Medulla oblongata
  3. Hypothalamus
  4. Cerebellum

7. Give the roles of any three sensory receptors cells in the mammalian body

8. a) What is a reflex action?

    b) Briefly explain what happens when an individual accidentally steps on a sharp  object

9. a) Give the two roles of mammalian ear.

    b) What is the name of the part that helps to equalize pressure between the outer ear and the inner ear?

    c) Give two diseases of the ear

10. a) What if the function of tears produced by the lachrymal glands of the eye?

      b) A student sitting under a shade of a tree on a sunny day shifted the eyes from looking at a passing jet liner (a type of aeroplane) in the sky to reading a page of her book. Briefly describe the changes that occurred in her eye

11. a) Distinguish between rods and cones

      b) Briefly discuss the following defects of the eye:

           i) Astigmatism

          ii) Hypermetropia

         iii) Cataracts

         iv) Presbyobia

12. a) What are the effects of under secretion of thyroxine and over secretion of adrenaline  hormones in the body?

       b) Give five effects of abuse of drugs to the human body

       c) Give three differences between the nervous and the endocrine systems


1. a) Give the three types of muscles found in the mammalian body. For each type given, identify where it is found in the body

     b) Distinguish between ball and socket joint and hinge joints

2. a) Give three reasons why support is necessary in plants

    b) Give three support tissues found in plants

3. Mention three types of skeletons found in animals. Give an example of the animal in each case

4. What is the role of the paired fins found in bony fish?

5. a) What is common in all cervical vertebrae of the vertebrae column?

    b) Give the salient features of the axis vertebrae

6. How is the lumbar vertebra adapted to its functions?

7. a) What is the name given to the bones forming the upper arm?

    b) Which joints are formed between the bones?

   i) Anteriorly?

   ii) Posteriorly?

8. Give three differences between a bone and a cartilage

9. Name the three bones that form the pelvic girdle

10. Briefly explain how the biceps and triceps muscles bring about movement at the hinge joint of the elbow in humans