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Agriculture questions


Name_________________________________________ Index No: _____

July/August 2011

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education


a) Write your name and index/ Admission number in the spaces provided above
b) This paper consists of three sections A B and C
c) Answer ALL the questions in section A and B; answer any Two questions in section C

    For Examiner’s use only

Section Questions Maximum score Candidate’s score
A 1-20 30
B 21-24 20

C 20
Total score

This paper consists of 7printed pages

    SECTION A  Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided
  1. State three disadvantages of row planting in crops establishments (1 ½ mks)
  2. What do you understand by the term “organic farming” (1mk)
  3. State three factors that determine spacing in maize (1 ½ mks)
  4. Give three factors that influence soil productivity (1 ½ mks)
  5. Give three conditions of the land which may make it necessary to carry out
    reclamation practices (1 ½ mks)
  6. State four practices which encourage soil erosion (2mks)
  7. State four objectives of land settlement which have been undertaken in Kenya (2mks)
  8. Give three factors that influence the supply of a commodity in a free market (3mks)
  9. Give four benefits of using polythene sleeves in raising seedlings (2mks)
  10. Differentiate between a purchase order and a delivery note (1mk)

  1. What is the role of agriculture in Kenya’s industrial growth and development (1 ½ mks)
  2. List two methods of drainage used on the farm (1mk)
  3. State four disadvantages of pastoral nomadism (2mks)
  4. State two financial statements that should be drawn on a farm (1mk)
  5. Give two reasons for treating seeds (1mk)
  6. State four factors influencing mass wasting (2mks)
  7. Give two reasons for hardening off (1mk)
  8. State three methods for land clearing (1 ½ mks)
  9. Give two advantages of silage making (1mk)
  10. Name two cropping systems that help in soil and water conservation (1mk)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. The diagrams below illustrate sorghum varieties characterized by head shape. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow. (a) Identify the varieties (1 ½ mks)
    (b) Apart from birds give two other pests that may attack sorghum (1mk)


(c) State two methods of controlling the above pests (2mks)

  1. The diagrams below illustrate two types of soil structures. Study them carefully
    and answer the questions that follow (a) Identify the types of soil structures (1mk)


(b) State two disadvantages of soil structure A over B          (2mks)


(c) Give three importance of soil structure in crop production         (1 ½ mks)

  1. The diagrams below represents some weeds (a) Identify weed A and B (1mk)
    Weed A

    Weed B

(b) Name two methods used to control weed A                 (2mks)


(c) State two harmful effects of weed B in livestock                (1mk)

   (d) Give two factors contributing to the competitive ability of weed. A over other weeds (1mk)

  1. A farmer was advised to apply 40kg/ha P2O5 in planting holes, 60kg/ha Nitrogen in top dressing and 60kg/ha K2O in a Maize field. The available fertilizers were sulphate of
    ammonia 20% N, DSP 20% P2O5 and muriate of potash 50% K2O. (a) Calculate how much sulphate of ammonia and muriate of potash would be required in
    one hectare of land. Show your working. (3mks)


(b) State three reasons for soil testing                    (1 ½ mks)


(c) Give three methods for applying fertilizers         (1 ½ mks)


Answer any Two questions in this section in the spaces provided at the back of question paper.

  1. (a) Describe the production of Napier grass (pennisetum purpurrum) under the following sub-headings.
    (i) Varieties grown (2mks)

(ii) Selection and preparation of planting materials (3mks)

(iii) Planting and weeding (5mks)

(b) Describe the procedure of hay making (10mks)

  1. (a) Describe methods of improving labour productivity (5mks) (b) List common problems which have led to the collapse of many
    Cooperative societies in Kenya (8mks) (c) Explain the functions of agricultural marketing boards (7mks)
  2. (a) Explain factors affecting rooting of cuttings (5mks) (b) Outline any five general post-harvesting practices carried out on crops (5mks) (c) Describe five categories of vegetables on the basis of the part used as
    Food giving relevant examples (10mks)


INDEX NO…………………

July/August 2011


Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

Write your name and index number in the spaces provided above.
This paper consists of three sections A, B and C.
Answer all the questions in section A and B and any two questions in section C in the spaces provided in this paper


A 1 -15 30
B 16 – 29 20
C 20 – 22 40


  1. State two uses of a sickle on the farm (1mk)

  1. Highlight six characteristics of a dairy calf you would look for during selection (3mks)

  1. State four management practices that should be carried out during the mating season in
    Sheep. (2mks)

  1. (a) What is the meaning of the term pre-desposing factors used in livestock health (1mk)

(b) Name five main causes of ill health farm animals (2 ½ mks)

  1. State the role of ceacum in ruminants (1mk)

  1. Give dimerits of live fence (key apple) (2mks)

  1. State two importance of the creep area in a piggery (1mk)

  1. State three advantages of a disc plough over mould board plough (1 ½ mks)

  1. (a) What is embryo transplant? (1mk)

(b) Give two advantages of embryo transport                    (2mks)

  1. Give four reasons of spreading a polythene paper on the slab of farm buildings (2mks)

  1. List four conditions that may lower the concentration of oxygen in a fish pond (2mks)

12 (a) Name the cause of foot rot in sheep ( ½ mk)

 (b) Give three predsposing factors of foot rot            (½ mk)  

(c) State four symptoms of foot rot (2mks)

  1. Give two values of pheronomes to bees (1mk)

  1. State four circumstances where concentrates are mainly used to supplement roughages in ruminants (2mks)

  1. State two uses of foot bath in a cattle dip (1mk)


  1. A farmer prepared two types of brooders as shown below. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow. (i) What is the purpose of the wire guard (½ mk)

(ii) Which is the appropriate brooder between the two. Give a reason    (½ mk)

(iii) Using diagrams, show the observation of the behaviour of chicks in the brooder, when 
    (a) Very cold                           (½ mk)

    (b) There is draught from one side              (½ mk)

(c) There is correct temperature                (½ mk)

    (d) Very hot                            (½ mk)  

(iv) State two sources of heat used in the brooder (1mk)

  1. Diagrams F, G, H and J illustrate farm tools (a) Name and state the use of the tools F, G, H and J (4mks)




(b) Name other two tools that are used during building and construction     (2mks)

  1. Diagram G H and J, illustrates some livestock parasites (a) Identify parasites G, H and J (1 ½ mks)

(b) State the category of parasites G, H and J (1 ½ mks)

(c) Name the parts of the host’s body where parasites G and J are found. (1mk)

(d) Name the intermediate hosts of parasites G and H (1mk)

  1. The illustration below is a biogas plant. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow. (i) Name the parts labeled A, B, C (1 ½ mks)



(ii) Briefly explain how biogas is produced (2mks)

(iii) List three limitations of using biogas as a source of farm power  (1 ½ mks)


  1. (a) Discuss the differences between tractor drawn implements and animal drawn implements (10mks)

  (b) Describe the factors considered when selecting construction materials on the farm    (10mks)

  1. Write short notes on anthrax under the following subheadings
    (a) Causative agent, transmission, incubation period and animal affected (5mks)

(b) Specific symptoms (5mks)

(c) Control and curative measures                   (10mks)

  1. (a) Outline the routine management practices of piglets from the first day to the 8th week (20mks)

  (b) Outline five factors which affect milk composition                    (5mks)

July/August 2011

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education


  1. – Requires skills e.g. in measuring distances.
    • It is expensive.
    • Labour demanding.
    • Encourage soil erosion as a lot of spaces are left uncovered on soil surface.
    • Land is not used fully/not fully utilized.
      3 x ½ = 1 ½ mk
  2. This is a farming method in which growing of crops and rearing livestock is done without the use of agrochemicals (owtte) 1 x 1 = 1mk
  3. – Maize variety
    • Soil fertility
    • Soil moisture conditions
    • The purpose of the crop
      3 x ½ = 1 ½ mk
  4. – Good supply of plants nutrients
    • Good aeration
    • Good soil depth
    • Good drainage
    • Abundance of useful soil organisms
    • Adequate water retention
    • Free from plant pests and disease causal agents.
      3 x ½ = 1 ½ mk
  5. – very steep/slopy land
    • Water logged/marshy area
    • Forested/bushy area
    • Rocky area
    • Aridity area
    • Tsetse fly infested area.
      3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks
  6. – Overstocking/overgrazing
  • Over cultivation/
    • Deforestation/
    • Burning of the vegetation.
    • Ploughing up and down the slope/along the contours
  • Planting annual crops on steep slopes 3 x 1 = 1 ½ mk
  1. – To settle the landless people
    • To ease population pressure
    • To increase agricultural production/to utilize idle land
    • To improve peoples standards of living
      4 x ½ = 2mks
  2. – Number of sellers
    • Price of the commodity
    • Price of the substitutes
    • Government policy
    • Weather changes
    • Production techniques 3 x 1 = 3mks
      9 – Roots are not disturbed during transplanting
    • The farmer can plan when to plant because the seedlings can be stored securely
    • Seedlings are easy to carry/transport
    • Soil borne pests and diseases are evaded since fresh mixture are prepared every time seedlings are prepared
      4 x ½ = 2mks
  3. A purchase order is a document drawn by a buyer to a supplier requesting for supply of
    goods on credit while delivery note is a document given to the buyers by the seller as evidence of goods supplied.
    (Mark as a whole) 1 x 1 = 1mk
  4. – Food supply to the population hence giving them energy to provide labour in
    the industries
  • Source of raw materials for industries
  • Provision of market for industrial goods
    3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks
  1. – Open ditches
    • Underground drain pipes
    • French drains
    • Cambered beds
    • Pumping
    • Planting of trees 3 x ½ =1 ½ mks
  2. – Spread of pests and diseases
    • Poor quality livestock
    • Uncontrolled breeding
    • Low production
    • Overstocking/overgrazing
    • Soil is pulverized by hooves of animals leading to soil erosion
    • Attack by wild animals 4 x ½ = 2mks
  3. – Balance sheet
    • Profit and loss account
    • Cash analysis
      2 x ½ = 1mk
  4. – To protect the seeds against pests and diseases
    • To break seed dormancy
    • To coat legume seeds with the right strain of rhizobium for nitrogen fixation
    • To improve germination percentage
      2 x ½ = 1mk
  5. – Land slope
    • Nature of material
    • Climate
    • Vegetation cover
    • Human activities
    • Forces within the earth’s crust
      2 x ½ = 1mk
  6. – For seedlings to acclimatize with the ecological conditions prevailing in the seedbed.
    • To produce hardy, health and vigorous growing seedlings
      2 x ½ = 1mk
  7. – Tree falling
    • Burning
    • Slashing
    • Use of chemicals
      3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks
  8. – More nutrients are preserved/has few field losses
    • It is less dependent on weather conditions.
    • It can be preserved for prolonged periods with minimum loss f nutrients
    • Once ensiled, there are no storage problems
    • It can be fed directly without liquid additives
      2 x ½ = 1mk
  9. – Mixed cropping
    • Cover cropping
    • Intercropping
    • Alley cropping
    • Multistory cropping
      2 x 1 = 1mk SECTION B (20MARKS)
  10. (a) (i) Sorghum compact panicle (head)
    (ii) Sorghum open panicle/head
    (iii) Sorghum goose necked/head
    3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks
    (b) – Sorghum shoot fly
    • Stem borers
    • Livestock
    • Aphids
      2 x ½ = 1mk
      (c) Sorghum shoot fly
    • Early planting
    • Closed season
    • Application of insecticides
      Stem borer
  • application of insecticides
  • proper disposal of crop remains after harvesting
  • application of insecticides
    2 x 1 = 2mk
  1. (a) A- platy structure 1 x ½ = ½ mk B – Blocky structure 1 x ½ = ½ mk (b) – It impairs permeability of water, roots and air
    • Often overlap each other
    • Impedes drainage
    • Impedes root penetration
      2 x 1= 2mks
      (c) -Determines water / air infiltration in the soil
    • Determines the ability of soil to allow / resist easy seedbed preparation
    • Some soil structure lead to water logging hence impending crop growth
      3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks
  2. (a) Weed A – conch grass/Digetaria Scalarum
    Weed B – Thorn apple/Datura stramonium
    2 x 1 = 2mks
    (b) – Use of herbicides/MCPA/ 2, 4 = D/Bentazon/Bromoxyril/Loxyril/Atrazine
  • By tillage/mechanical/weed control 2 x 1 = 2mks (c) – Its poisonous to livestock
    • It change the colour of milk/tainting milk
      2 x 1 = 2mks
  1. (a) Sulphate of ammonia
    20 = 60 x 100 1mk
    X = 60 x 100
    X = 300kg ½ mk
    Muriate of potash
    50 = 60 x 100 1mk
    X = 60 x 100
    X = 120kg ½ mk (b) – To establish the nutritive starts of the soil so as to determine which type of fertilizer to apply.
  • Determine the pH of the soil so as to determine if its necessary to modify the soil
  • To know the type of soil hence the type of crop to grow
  • In order to estimate the expected yields if fertilizers are applied
    3 x 1 = 3mks
    (c) – Side band placement
    • Row application
    • Top dressing
    • Foliar spraying.
      3 x 1 = 3mks SECTION C (40 MARKS)
  1. (a) (i) – French Cameroon
    – Bana grass
    2 x 1 = 2mks
    (ii) – Select desirable varieties of Napier grass
  • Widely adapted
    • High carrying capacity/ High yielding
    • Early maturing
    • Withstand high freguency defoliation
    • Selection of healthy and mature mother plants
    • Stem cuttings or spilts are used
    • Treat cuttings with pesticides
    • Stem cutting should have 2 – 3 nodes
      3 x 1 = 3mks
      (iii) – Planting should be done at the onset of the rains
  • Place stems cuttings in the furrows or planting holes
  • Plant in slanting manner
  • Use compound fertilizer e.g. NPK (20-20-0)
    -Cover the cuttings with enough soil one node remain above ground
  • Splits are planted by covering the roots
    5 x 1 = 5mks
  • Remove weeds at early stages of establishment
  • Use herbicides e.g. 2, 4 – D
  • Slashing
  • Uprooting

– Cultivation 5 x 1 = 5mks

(b) – Hay is dehydrated (dried) to about 15-20% moisture content or less
– Cut the hay at least three days of continuous sunshine is expected
– Cut crop when 50% of the plants have flowered
– Spread out evenly on the ground to dry for 2-3 days depending on the environmental temperature

  • Windraw and gather or bale the hay
  • Store bale in a shed out of reach by rain water and sunshine
  • Rapid drying is recommended for high quality hay
  • Where occasional showers are expected the forage may be dried on tripods (stands)
    10 x 1 = 10mks
  1. (a) – Training
    • Farm mechanization
    • Giving incentives and improving terms and conditions of service
    • Labour supervision
    • Security
    • Good housing 5 x 1 = 5mks
      (b) – Dishonesty by members
  • Delayed/irregular payment to members for their produce
  • Inadequate storage capacity of the society
  • Poor transport systems
  • Price fluctuation and lack of market
  • Shortage of qualified personnel
  • Poor payment of the professional staff working for the society
  • Misappropriation of funds by corrupt officials 7 x 1 = 7mks (c) – Buying farm produce from the producers.
    • Assembling farm produce from various areas of production
    • Selling farm produce on behalf of the farmers
    • paying farmers for their produce
    • providing finance/capital to farmers
    • Looking for markets for their produce
    • Processing, packing storage and transporting the produce to areas of consumption
    • Provide protection to farm produce from damage through insurance use of chemicals and bearing risks.
  • Gathering analyzing and interpreting market information to determine appropriate market.
    8 x 1 = 8mks
  1. (a) – Temperature
    • Relative humidity
    • Light intensity
    • Oxygen supply
    • Chemical treatment
    • Leaf area
      5 x 1 = 5mks
      (b) – Threshing/shelling
    • Drying
    • Cleaning
    • Sorting and grading
    • Dusting
    • Processing
    • Packaging
    • Storage 5 x 1 = 5mks
      (c) – Leaf vegetables√ e.g. kales√
    • Root vegetables√ e.g. carrot√
    • Fruit vegetables√ e.g. tomatoes√
    • Pod vegetables√ e.g. legumes√
    • Stem vegetables√ e.g. leems√, asparagus
    • Bulb vegetable √e.g. bulb√ onion 5 x 2 = 10

July/August 2011

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education


  1. (a) Harvesting wheat
    (b) Cutting grass to make hay
    ½ x 2 = 1mk
  2. – Wedge/ triangular shaped body
    • Wide and well set hind quarters
    • Thin body with little flesh
    • Large udder
    • Straight top line
    • Prominent milk veins
    • Large stomach capacity
    • Docile with mild temperament ½ x 6 = 3mks
  3. – Crutching of hoggets and ewes
    • Ringing of the rams
    • Raddling of the rams
    • Flushing i.e. giving nutrient food during mating
      ½ x 4 = 2mks
  4. (a) Are conditions found within or outside an animals body that make the
    animal susceptible to a disease or an injury
    (b) – Microorganisms
    – Parasitic infection
    – Nutritional causes
    – Physical injuries
    – Chemical poisoning 5 x ½ = 2 ½ mks
  5. Contains micro-organisms that digest cellulose 1 x 1 = 1mk
  6. – Take time to grow after establishment
    • Suffer from disease and pests attack
    • Need constant trimming to size
    • Can be a home for dangerous predators
      ½ x 4 = 2mks
  7. – Unable the piglets to escape crushing by the sow when she is lying down
    • Prevent the sow from eating the creep feed meant for the piglets
    • Provides rooms for the brooder
      ½ x 2 = 1mk
  8. – Need less power to pull it
    • Tear and wear is less
    • can ride over obstacles
      3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks
  9. (a) It is when fertilized ovum from superior female and male is implanted into an
    inferior female 1 x 1 = 1mk
    (b) – A superior female is able to give rise to a large number of offspring within a
    short time
  • Embryo’s from superior animals can be stored to be used in future
  • Easy to transport embryo even for long distances
  • Enables the use of inferior female to develop superior offspring
    1 x 2 = 2mks
  1. – To prevent moisture from raising up the wall
    • To prevent coldness ascending
    • To control the raising of termites
    • To prevent cracking of the slab/floor
      ½ x 4 = 2mks
  2. – Muddy pond water
    • High environmental temperatures
    • Overcrowding/overstocking the fish
    • Pollution in the fishpond with oil products
    • Excess application of organic manure
      ½ x 4 = 2mks
  3. (a) Bacterium (fusiforms) necrophrus 1 x ½ = ½ mk
    (b) – Filthy wet/muddy fields
    – Untrimmed hooves
    – Presence of sharp objects
    3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks
    (c) – Swollen foot
    – Lameness when walking
    – Kneeling when grazing/spend most time lying down
    – Put oozes out of the affected foot with rotten smell
    ½ x 4 = 2mks
  4. – Detection of changes in environmental temperatures hence regulating it
    • Sensing bad smells within the hive and in move away
      ½ x 2 = 1mk
  5. – During pregnancy/steaming up
    • Flushing/prior to mating
    • During fattening
  • During lactation
    – During drought ½ x 4 = 2mks
  1. – To wash the foot off mud
    • Holds the chemical to control foot rot (Blue vitrol)
      ½ x 2 = 1mk
  2. (i) Prevent the click from being burnt 1 x ½ = ½ mk
    (ii) A – Rsn – Brooder should be round without sharp corners to discourage
    Overcrowding which may cause suffocation
    Correct identification ½ mk
    Reason 1mk
    (a) Concentrates near the heat source ½ mk (b) No drought may be from any direction ½ mk (c) Regular distribution within the brooder ½ mk (d) Move away from the heat source ½ mk (iv) – Electric bulb
  • Charcoal burners
    – Kerosene lamp
    – Gas burner
    ½ x 2 = 1mk
    17 (a) F – Keyhole/ compass saw – for making small holes in wood work
    G – Plumb bob – to check vertical straightness of walls
    H – Cold chisel – Cutting thick metal sheets/metal work
    J – Mallet – Hitting the wooden chisel
    1 x 4 = 4mks
    (b) _ spirit level
    • Trowel (masons)
  • Wooden/metallic sloat
    • Try square
    • Mason’s square
      1 x 2 = 2mks
  1. (a) G- Liver fluke
    H – Round worm (fosciola ssp)
    J – Tape worm (Taenia spp)
    1 x ½ = ½ mks
    (b) Ectoparasite/internal parasites 1 x ½ = ½ mk
    (c) G – Bile duct/gall bladder/ liver
    J – Attached on the walls of small intestines
    ½ x 2 = 1mk
    (d) G – Water snails (Limnolea Truncatula)
    J- Cattle, sheep, goat, pig
    ½ x 2 = 1mk
  2. (i) A – Inlet pipe
    B- Digester
    C- Effluent storage
    ½ x 3 = 3mks
    (ii) – Organic material are mixed in the mixing chamber
  • The mixed materials are pushed down through the inlet pipe into the digester
  • After 20minutes fermentation takes place and gas bubbles come into the gas holder and conveyed into the kitchen
  • The effluent is pushed to the effluent tank
    4 x ½ = 2mks
    (iii) – A high level of skills to required for installation
  • labour intensive
  • requires large quantities of raw material
  • high costs of installation
  • operate, where animals are reared under zero grazing
    ½ x 3 = 1 ½ mks


20 (a) Tractor drawn Animal drawn

  • High initial cost of buying tractor – Cost of buying the animals is low
    • High work output – Low work output
    • Requires less labour to operate – Requires more labour
    • Achieve a higher depth of cultivation – Provides relatively shallow depth
    • Uneconomical in small piece of land – Economical in small piece of land
    • Requires more skills to operate – Requires less skill to operate
    • Can’t be used in steep terrain – Appropriate even in steep terrain
    • High mantainance cost – Low maintainance costs
    • Tractor break down can easily be fixed – Animal may fall sick and take
      long to recover.
      1 x 10 = 10mks
  • availability of materials
  • cost of materials vs capital available
  • serviceability of the material
  • workability/skills needed to use the materials
  • suitability of the climatic factors of the area
  • durability of the material
  • strength of the material
  • flexibility of the material to do other structures
  • composition of the material –e.g. asbestos has poisonous substances
  • density/weight vs the size
  • size/dimension of the material
  • susceptibility/vulnerability to fire or vermin
  1. (a) (i) Caused by abactenum Bacillus anthracis (ii) Transmitted through ingestion of contaminated pasture, insect bites and open wounds (iii) Incubation period between 1 – 2 weeks depending on the animals tolerance (iv) Animal affected include man, sheep, goat, cattle, pigs 5mks (b) -High fever over 400c
    • Dysentery with blood stained feaces
    • Sudden death in cattle within 24hrs
    • Tarry red watery blood from anus, vulva, mouth and nose (body openings)
    • Excessively blown up stomach
    • Lack of rigor mortis/stiffness of the carcas
      5 x 1 = 5 mks
      (c) – Give animal large doses of anti-anthrax serum and antibodies
    • Wound treatment to avoid channel of entry.
      -Burn/ deep burry dead animals
    • Vaccinate animals against anthrax using Blanthay
    • Never open acarcas of an animal that died suddenly
    • Impose quarantine incase of outbreak
    • Checking of newly introduced animals in the herd
    • Full control of tsetse fly that can transmit the bacteria through biting
    • Paddock fencing to restrict wild animals in the field
    • Use of certified feeds e.g. bone meal and blood meal
      10 x 1 10mks
  2. (a)
  • placenta disposal
  • umbilical cord cutting with sharp and sterilized scapel
  • umbilical disinfecting with iodine solution
  • extraction of needle teeth teeth clipping /defusking
  • keeping piglets in the warm/creep area
  • weighing piglets 24 hours after birth
  • feeding the piglets on colostrums
  • iron supplementation through intra muscular injection
  • vaccination against diseases
  • give creep feed
  • water provision ad-libidum
  • nose ringing
  • putting of identification mark i.e. ear notching
  • deforming/drenching with antilelmuthes
  • tail cutting of the piglets
  • castration of the male piglets
    15 x 1 = 15mks (b) -Age of the animal
    • Condition of the animal
    • Stage of lactation and pregnancy
    • Completeness of milking
    • Breed differences
    • Season of the year
    • The type of food eaten by the animal
      5 x 1 = 5mks

NAME……………………………………………………INDEX NUMBER. ……………………

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education


Write your name and index number. This paper consists of sections A, B and C. Answer All questions in section A and B and any two questions in Section C in the spaces provided.


Section questions Maximum marks Candidates scores
C 1 – 19
20 – 23
24 – 26 30


                                                                       This paper consists 9 printed pages

                                                                                                                       Please Turn Over


  1. State three benefits of practicing mixed farming (1 ½ mks)

  1. Identify any two methods of increasing light intensity in crop production. (1 mk)

  1. Give four human factors that influence Agriculture (2mks)

  1. Mention two reasons why shifting cultivation method of farming is dying in Kenya. (1 mk)

  1. Give three factors outside the animal that influence the quality of farm yard manure.(1 ½mks)

  1. Differentiate between olericulture and pomoculture. (2mks)

  1. (a) Give two reasons why phosphatic fertilizers are applied during planting in crops. (1mk)


(b) A farmer was advised to apply 80kg Nitrogen in his crop of maize during top dressing. The
only fertilizer available was C.A.N (20% N). Calculate the amount of C.A.N in
kilograms the farmer should purchase. (Show your working) (2mks)

(c) Outline two ways in which a change in soil ph leads to loss in soil of soil fertility

  1. Identify any four sources of capital to farmers in Kenya. (2mks)

  1. State two conditions that may lead to land subdivision in Kenya. (1mk)

  1. Give the meaning of the following terms as used in nursery management;
    (a) Pricking out (1mk)

(b) Hardening off (1mk)


  1. State three qualities of a good silage. (11/2mks)

  1. State two practices of carrying out topping in pasture crops. (1mk)

  1. Give two reasons for keeping health records. (1mk)

  1. (a) Outline two indicators of economic development in a country (1mk)

  (b) Give two forms of enterprise relationships. (1mk)

  1. (a) What is Agro-forestry? (1mk)

  (b) State four roles of trees in soil and water conservation. (2mks)

  1. Name the chemicals used in the control of the following crop pests (1 ½mks)
    (i) Insect


(ii) Nematodes
(iii) Mites

  1. List two ways by which weeds are adapted for successful propagation. (1mk)

  1. State any two common symptoms of viral diseases in crops. (1mk)


  1. (a) Define the term soil sampling (1mk)

  (b) The diagram below represents two methods of soil sampling
    N                       M

 (i) Identify the methods N and M. (1mk)


(ii) State three precautions observed when carrying out the practices labeled N 
       and M(1 ½mks)

(c) Outline three reasons of testing soil pH. (1 ½ mks)

  1. The following information is from Mr. Mbutas farm for the year ending 31 – 12 – 2009.
    Opening valuation Kshs 6,000
    Paid wages Kshs 5,000
    Bought equipment worth Kshs 8,000
    Bought pig feeds worth Kshs 4,000
    Sold mature pigs worth Kshs 7,000
    Bought drugs worth Kshs 3,200
    Sold maize worth Kshs 3,000
    Sold piglets worth Kshs 4,000
    Closing valuation Kshs 4,000 (a) What do understand by the term opening valuation. (1mk)

(b) Using the information above, prepare a profit and loss account for Mr. Mbuta’s
farm. (3 ½mks)

(c) From the calculations in (b) above, state whether Mr. Mbuta made a profit or loss

  1. (a) State two crop production practices carried out after planting to achieve optimum
    plant population. (1mk)

  (b) Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow.

(i) Name the method layering represented above; (1mk)

(ii) State three advantages of using the above method compared to the use of
seeds. (1 ½mks)

(iii) State three factors considered during selection of planting materials. (1 ½ mks)

  1. Below is a diagram representing a cross-section of a compost heap. Study it carefully
    and answer the questions that follow.

(a) Identify the parts labeled A,B,C and D. (2mks)
A _________________________________________________
B. _________________________________________________
C. _________________________________________________
D. _________________________________________________
(b) What is the importance of adding layer D during the preparation of compost manure. (1mk)

(c) Identify two factors to consider during location of a compost heap/pit. (1mk)

(d) Give two signs which will indicate that the compost manure is ready to be used. (1mk)




  1. (a) Explain the reasons for treating water in the farm. (4mks)
    (b) State the uses of water in the farm. (4 ½ mks)
    (c) Describe the process of water treatment using chemical system. (12 ½ mks)
  2. (a) Describe the factors considered during planning of enterprises
    on the farm. (10mks)
    (b) State the qualities of a good farm manager. (5mks)
    (c) Outline the problems that farmers face in the marketing of
    Agricultural goods (5mks)
  3. Describe the field production of maize for grains starting from seedbed
    Preparation to harvesting (20mks)

Name________________________________________________ Index No: _____


Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education


a) Write your name and index/ Admission number in the spaces provided above
b) This paper consists of three sections A B and C
c) Answer ALL the questions in section A and B in the spaces provided.
d) Answer any Two questions in section C

    For Examiner’s use only

Section Questions Maximum score Candidate’s score
A 1-20 30
B 21-24 20

C 20

This paper consists of 9 printed pages

Answer all question in the spaces provided
  1. Name a tool used for tightening barbed wires fencing (½ mk)

  1. Mention two predisposing factors of foot rot disease in sheep (1mk)

  1. State four advantages of hedges (2mks)

  1. (a) Define the term “Zoonotic disease” (1mk)

(b) Give two examples of Zoonotic diseases                    (1mk)

  1. Name the three methods of livestock selection (1 ½ mks)

  1. State one use of each of the following farm tools
    (i) Stock and die (1mk)

(ii) Garden trowel (1mk)

  1. State one cause of grass tagers disease in cattle (1 mk)

  1. State two causes of soft shell in eggs (1mk)

  1. List three mechanical methods of controlling ticks in livestock (1 ½ mks)

  1. State three maintenance practices of a trailer (1 ½ mks)

  1. (a) name three implements operated by the hydraulic system of the tractor (1 ½ mk)

  (b) Outline four general uses of a solar energy                    (2mks)

  1. What is a “notifiable diseas” in livestock production (1mk)

  1. Why should Irish potatoes not be fed to non – ruminants (1mks)

  1. State four good qualities of honey (2mks)

  1. State four desirable features of a rabbit hutch (2mks)

  1. Give two reasons of spreading a polythene paper on the slab of a farm building (1mk)

  1. Why is it necessary to provide grit to birds (1mk)

  1. Mention four management practices that would ensure maximum harvesting
    of fish from a pond. (2mks)

  1. Name two dual purpose breeds of cattle (1mk)

  1. State four ways in which vaccines may be administered to animals (2mks)

Answer all questions in the spaces provided

  1. (a) Below are diagrams of workshop tools, H, J, and Q. Study them and answer the question
    which follow.

(i) Identify each tool (1 ½ mks)



(ii) What functional advantage does tool H have over tool J             (1 mk)

(b) Why is the part labeled A an important component of the watering can (1mk)

  1. Study the diagram below of a tractor- drawn implement and answer the questions that follow

(a) Identify the implement (1mk)

(b) State one use of the above implement                    (1mk)

(c) Name the parts labeled                          (2mks)




(d) Mention two maintenance practices carried out on the implement (2mks)

  1. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow (a) State the operations that are carried out on the parts labeled E, F and G (1 ½ mks)
    E _____________________________________________________ F _________________________________________________________________ G _________________________________________________________________ (b) State three reasons for carrying out the operation identified in E. (1 ½ mk)

(c) At what age should the operation stated in E be carried out (1mk)

(d) State three methods of carrying out the operation named in E (1 ½ mk)

  1. Below is an illustration of an internal parasite in livestock (a) Identify the parasite (1mk)

(b) Name the final host of the parasite             (1mk)

(c) Name the intermediate host for the parasite above       (1mk)

(d) State two measures used to control the above parasite       (2mks)

Answer any two questions from this section

  1. (a) List four ways in which power is transmitted from the engine and made available for use in
    the farm (4mks)
    (b) Explain the maintenance practices that are carried out in ignition system of a tractor (6mks)
    (c) Outline the factors a farmer should consider to ensure fast and efficient cultivation
    by oxen (10mks)
  2. (a) Give the breeding system involved in each of the following cases
    (i) Friesian sire mated with Aryshire dam. (1mk)
    (b) List four disadvantages of Natural mating (4mks)
    (c) (i) List three disadvantages of embryo transplant (3mks)
    (ii) Give two reasons why a breeding boar may be culled (2mks)
    (d) What steps can a farmer take to improve the indigenous livestock breeds in Kenya (10mks)
  3. (a) Mention four methods of water harvesting (4mks)
    (b) Describe the different types of micro-catchment used in water conservation (10mks)
    (c) Explain the importance of micro-catchment (6mks)

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

  1. – Mutual benefit between animals and crops
    • Incase of failure of one the farmer can rely on the other.
    • There is maximum utilization of farm labour.
    • Animal wastes can be used to generate biogas
    • Some farm animals are used to provide farm labour.
    • Ensure maximum utilization of land.
      3 x ½ = 1½mks
  2. – Wide spacing
    • Proper pruning.
    • Growing of upright growing crops.
      2 x ½ = 1mk
  3. – Level of education/technology
    • Health status/economy.
    • Religious and cultural practices.
    • Market forces.
    • Government policy.
    • Transport and communication.
      4 x ½ = 2mks
  4. – Scarcity of land due to increase in population.
    • Change of land ownership methods.
    • Growing of cash crops
    • Change to modern methods of farming.
      2 x ½ = 1 mk
  5. – Type of feed eaten by the animal
    • Method of storage of the manure
    • Type of bedding/liter used.
      3 x ½ = 1 ½ mk
  6. – Olericulture is the growing of vegetable crops
    • Pomoculture is the growing of fruit crops.
      1 x 1 = 1
  7. (a) – Encourages easy root formation and development
    • Dissolve in water slowly.
      2 x ½ = 1mk
      (b) 100kg C.A.N supplies 20kg N√ ½
      X kg C.A.N supplies 80kg N√ ½
    X = 100 x 80√ ½
    = 400 kg C.A.N√ ½
    4 x ½ mks
    (c) – May inhibit the activity of useful soil micro-organisms.
    • May make some nutrients in available for plant use.
    • May not support growth of the some crops.
      2 x ½ = 1 mk
  8. – Credit facilities from financial institutions
    • Self savings
    • Inheritance.
    • Grants/ donations from friends or NGOs
      4 x ½ = 2 mks
  9. – Selling a portion of ones land
    • Subdividing to Heirs
    • By the government to settle the landless.
    • Shifting cultivation.
      2 x ½ = 1mk
  10. – Pricking out – uprooting excess seedlings and planting in another seedling bed.
    1 x1 = 1mk
    • Hardening off – accustoming seedlings to actual field conditions or exposing
      seedlings to actual field conditions before transplanting.
      1 x 1 = 1mk
  11. – Free from foul smell
    • Yellowish green in colour.
    • Should have growth of moulds
    • Should have PH between 4.2 – 4.6
      3 x ½ mk
  12. – Slashing
    • Burning
    • Mowing 2 x ½ = 1 mk
  13. – To show the health conditions of the animal
    • For use in selection and culling of animals on health grounds
    • Help to trace history of diseases for better treatment.
    • Show when to vaccinate/deworm.
  • Show costs on health of animals in accessing profitability in animals. 2 x ½ = 1mk
  1. (a) – Per capital income.
    • Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
    • Gross National Product (G.N.P)
    • Ratio of teacher to students
    • Ratio of doctor to patients
    • Number of families owning a family car/T.Vs e.t.c.
      2 x ½ = 1 mk
      (b) – Competitive relationship.
    • Complimentary relationship.
    • Supplementary relationship.
    • Joint products relationship.
  2. (a) – Agro-forestry is the practice of land usage where trees, pastures and
    food crops are grown on the same piece of land at the same time.
    1 x 1 = 1mk
    (b) – Trees act as wind breaks thus slowing down the speed of wind.
    • Roofs of trees bind soil particles together hence resist erosion.
    • Tree roofs crack the ground thus allowing more water infiltration/ percolation/porosity
      (OWTTE) e.t.c .
    • Leaf fall from trees act as mulch thus controlling erosion.
    • Fallen leaves decompose thus improving soil structure.
    • Spongy nature of fallen leaves increase water retention in the soil.
    • Trees provide shade to the or crops thus reducing evapotranspiration.
      4 x ½ = 2 mks
  3. (i) – Insecticides
    (ii) – Nematocides
    (iii) – Acaricides/miticides.
    3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks
  4. – Some produce large quantities of seeds increasing chances of their survival.
    • Some have excellent mechanisms of dispersal.
    • Some are able to propagate both vegetatively and by seeds.
    • Some seeds are able to remain viable in the soil for along time
    • Some are able to carry out self pollination.
      2 x ½ = 1mk
  5. – Mottling of leaves
    • chlorosis
    • Gall formation
  • Malformed leaves
    • Streaks
    • Necrosis
    • Rosetting
      2 x ½ = 1 mk
      SECTION B (20 MARKS).
  1. (a) Soil sampling
    This is the practice of collecting small quantities of soil from different parts of the
    crop field and mixing them to form a composite sample which is used for soil testing.
    (b) i. N – Traverse/diagonal sampling.
    M – Zigzag/random sampling.
    ii. – Avoid any form of contamination of the soil
  • Collect soil at the right depth.
  • Avoid unusual sites e.g manure heaps, under hedges.
  • Do not mix top soil with subsoil (c) – To determine the soil pH
    • To determine the nutrient level/deficiency.
    • To determine the soil type.
  1. (a) Opening valuation is the monetary value of a farm business at the beginning of financial
    THE YEAR ENDED 31-12-09
    Opening valuation
    Pig feeds
    Drugs 6,000
    3,200 00
    00 Pig sales
    maize sales
    Piglet sales
    Closing valuation
    4,000 00
    00 TOTAL LOSS 18,000
    8,200 00
    TOTAL 26,200 00 26,200 00
    Marks allocation.
    i) correct columns (sales & receipts) ……….. ½
    ii) Purchases & expenses ……….. ½
    iii) Correct entries – sales & receipts ……… ½
    – purchases & expenses …… ½
    iv) correct totals – sales & receipts…….. ½
    – purchases & expenses…. ½
    v) correct balance/ profit/loss …… ½
    3 ½
    (c) Mr. Mbuta made loss
  2. (a) – Thinning
    • Gapping
      (b) (i) Tip layering
      (ii) New plants mature faster than those from seeds
  • The plants grow faster due to high food reserves
  • Appropriate for propagating plants that have no seeds or seeds have a long dormancy period.
  • Plants have desirable shapes and sizes
  • Individual plants are similar to their mother plants
    (iii) – Health they should be free from pest and diseases.
  • Yield potential should be from high yielding mother plants
  • They should be resistant to diseases.
  • Should be of high germination percentage
  • They should be suitable to the climatic condition of where to be planted.
  1. a)A- Maize stalks/foundation material B- Grass/leaves/kitchen refuses/main material C- Well decomposed manure & inorganic fertilizer (compound) D- Wood ash 4 x ½ = mks (b) – To control the pH of the manure
    • To increase the percentage of phosphorous and potassium. 1 x 1 = 1 mk (c ) – Distance from the garden
      • Availability of materials
      • Topography of the area
      • Type of soil
      • Direction of prevailing wind
      • Accessibility
      • Security
        2 x ½ mk

(d) – When the materials can break easily if crushed between fingers.
– When the volume of the heap goes down
– When there is growth of moulds.
2 x ½ = 1 mk


  1. (a) – To remove bad smell and taste
    • To kill harmful micro-organisms which thrive in dirty water e.g. bacteria
    • To remove solid particles e.g. soil, sand, sticks
    • To remove excess chemical impurities of fluorides to soften the water.
      4 x 1 = 4 mks
      (b) – For diluting/mixing chemicals used to control pests, diseases, weeds.
    • For watering livestock e.g. drinking.
    • Watering plants e.g. irrigation
    • In processing farm produce e.g. coffee, carrot, hides.
    • Domestic use e.g. drinking, cooking
    • For rearing fish
    • Mixing concrete in construction
    • Recreation e.g. swimming pools
    • Cooking and running machine engines.
      (9 x ½ = 4 ½ mks)
      ( c) The water treatment process.
      Stage I – Filtration at the water intake
      -Water is let to pass through a series of sieves where large particles of impurities are trapped. (2mks)
      Stage II – Softening of water
      – Water is let to circulate in a tank (open) and is mixed with soda ash to soften
      it. (2mks)
      Stage III – Coagulation and sedimentation
      – Alum is added to water to facilitate sedimentation and coagulation. Water
      Stays here for 36 hours inorder to kill bilhazia worms. (2mks)
      Stage IV – Filtration
  • Water passes into infiltration tank where all the remaining solids particles are
    removed. (2mks)
    Stage V – Chlorination
  • Filtered water enters chlorination tank where a small amount of chlorine is
    added to kill disease agents. (2mks)
    Stage VI – Storage
  • Treated water is stored before entering distribution channels for use.
  • Ensures rationing/ control measures are taken before supplying to consumers. ( 1 ½ mks)
    (11 ½ mks)
  1. (a)
  • Size of the farm – several suitable enterprises can be established on a large farm but a small farm can only hold a few enterprises.
  • Environmental factors e.g. climate, soil type and topography.
  • The current trends in labour market to ensure availability of labour at low cost.
  • Farmers objectives and preferences.
  • Possible production enterprises depending on the environmental factors, farm size markets e.t.c
  • Existing market trends/conditions to ensure availability of good prices for the produce.
  • Availability & cost of farm inputs to produce at a minimum cost
  • Government regulations/policy e.g. farmers must get license to plant coffee.
  • Security – certain enterprises should be near the homestead e.g rabbit hutch, farm garage e.t.c
  • Communication and transport facilities to ensure produce reach the market on good time. 10 x 1 = 10 mks (b) – Has knowledge about specific: agricultural principles, marketing and accounting.
    • Hardworking and time conscious
    • Has practical farming skills
    • Should be responsible/dynamic/prudent/competent/ambitious.
    • Flexible in decision making in order to adjust to the ever changing social & economic
      Trends in the society.
      5 x 1 = 5 mks
      © – Most agricultural goods are highly perishable e.g milk, fruits, vegetables.
  • Production of agricultural goods is seasonal and only available in plenty at harvest
    Periods this affects their prices.
  • Most agricultural products are bulky leading to problems of storage and transport.
  • Storage – storage facilities are expensive to construct; increase the cost of marketing.
  • Poor transport systems leading to spoilage of goods on farms.
  • Changes in market demand due to change in consumer preferences and tastes. This
    Affects prices.
  • Lack of market information e.g availability of good markets.
  • Changes in supply leading to fluctuation of market prices.
    5 x 1 = 5 mks
  1. Describe the field production of maize for grains starting from seedbed preparation to
  • Clear the land and remove stumps if any
  • Plough/dig the land/carry out primary cultivation
  • Harrow the land/carry out secondary cultivation.
  • Ensure the land has a moderate tilth
  • Removal of perennial weeds from seedbed during preparation/prepare land early before onset of rains
  • Mention of a given variety for a particular area e.g. 5.11, 5 + 2 for lake region e.t.c
  • Select a suitable maize variety
  • Plant at 2.5 – 10cm deep depending on the moisture content of the soil.
  • Apply phosphatic fertilizer /manure during planting
  • Phosphatic fertilizer is applied at the rate of 100kg/ha. P205
  • Plant at 75 – 90 by 23 – 30cm depending on variety and environmental conditions.
  • Place one or two seeds per hole depending on the spacing chosen
  • Plant healthy. Certified seeds/disease free seeds
  • Gapping/thinning should be done if necessary
  • Control weeds in the field until flowering stage
  • Control weeds mechanically
  • Top dress using Nitrogenous fertilizer
  • Apply N-fertilizer up to 200kg/ha.
  • Control pests like stock borer, army worms, bird’s e.t.c.
  • Use appropriate method of disease control
  • Harvest maize when it is dry
  • Remove the husks from the cobs.
    (20 marks)
    PAPER 2
    JULY/AUGUST 2011

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education


  1. Monkey strainer/wire strainer
    1 x ½ = ½ mk
  2. – Filthy surroundings e.g. wet and muddy areas cracking of the hooves
    • Sharp objects in pastures
    • Overgrown hooves/elongated hooves
      2 x ½ = 1mk
  3. – Provide shade to livestock
    – Cheap and easy to establish
    – Tall varieties act as wind breakers e.g. kai apple
    • Have aesthetic value/beauty
      • Roots hold soil firmly controlling soil erosion
      • Can be used as livestock feed
        4 x ½ = 2mks
  4. (a) Are diseases that are transmitted from animal to man or from man to animal
    1 x 1 = 1mk
    (b) Anthrax, Brucellosis, Rabies, Tuberculosis, Rift-valley fever, Trichomoniasis,
    Mud cow disease 2 x ½ = 1 mk
  5. – mass selection
    – Progeny testing
    • Contemporary comparison
      3 x ½ = 1 ½ mk
  6. (i) – Making threads in metallic pipes
    (ii) – For lifting seedlings together with a ball of soil during transplanting
    1 x 1 = 1mk
  7. – Lack of manganese
    1 x 1 = 1mk
  8. – Lack of calcium
    • Effects of some diseases e.g. Newcastle
      2 x ½ = 2mks
  9. – Rotational grazing
    • Hand picking/deticking and killing
    • Hand dressing
    • Burning pastures/paddocks
    • Double perimeter fencing
      3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks
  10. – Lubricate the moving parts
    • Maintain correct tyre pressure
    • Clean after use
    • Keep under shed/store properly
    • Tighten loose nuts/bolts
    • paint unpainted metallic parts to avoid rusting
      3 x 1 = 3mks
  11. (a) – Harrows
    • Cultivators/rotavators
    • Rollers
    • Ridges
    • Sub-soilers/chisel plough/Rippers
    • Mowers
      3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks
      (b) Heating water
      Distilled clear drinking water
      Generating electricity
      4 x ½ = 2mks
  12. A disease that is highly contagious and infections and needs the notification of the relevant
    authorities to impose quarantine for its control. 1 x 1= 1mk
  13. It contains solanine which is a poisonous alkaloid and can kill the animal
    1 x 1 = 1mk
  14. – Purity – free from wax/wings/smoke/combs
    • Colour – brown yellow
    • Viscosity – not dilute or too thick
    • Smell – right smell not of rotten combs
      4 x ½ = 2mks
  15. – Spaceous
    -High above the ground/well drained site
    • Well ventilated
    • Well lit 4 x ½ = 2mks
  16. – To prevent moisture from raising up
    • To prevent/control termites from ascending
    • To prevent coldness from ascending
      2 x ½ = 1mk
  17. – To aid in griding grains into paste by thick muscle of the gizzard
    1 x 1= 1mk
  18. – Harvesting only the mature fish
    • Control overstocking
    • ensure enough water in the pond
    • Ensure proper circulation of water
      4 x ½ = 2mks
  19. (i) – Sahiwal
    • Red poll
    • Simmental
    • Brown Swiss 2 x ½ = 1mk
  20. – Injection
    • Orally
    • By inhalation
    • Through the cloaca
      4 x ½ = 2mks
  21. (a) (i) H- adjustable spanner
    J – Ring spanner
    Q – Watering can
    3 x 1 = 3 mks
    (ii) – Adjustable spanner can be used for tightening/loosening different sizes
    of nuts while ring spanner can be used to tighten or loosen at least two different
    sizes of nuts
    2 x ½ = 1mk
    (b) – Causes water to come out in spreading manner hence reducing its impact on seedlings
    while also avoiding soil erosion. OWTTE
    1 x 1= 1mk
  22. (a) – Reciprocating/cutter bar mower 1 x 1= 1mk
    (b) – Harvesting/cutting grass/weeds 1 x 1 = 1mk
    (c) A – Swath bar/board
    B – Finger
    C- Cutter bar
    D – Inner shoe
    (d) – Lubricate rotating part
    • Clean after use
    • Tighten loose nuts/bolts
    • Paint if to be stored for long with old engine oil to prevent rusting
    • Sharpen the cutting blades
      4 x ½ = 2mks
  23. (a) E – Docking
    F – Ear tagging/Notching
    G – Hoof trimming
    (b) – To facilitate mating/tupping
    • Even fat distribution throughout the body
    • Minimise incidences of blow fly infection
      (c) 1 day to 2 weeks old 1 x1 = 1mk
      (d) – use of rubbering and elastrator
    • Use of knife
    • Use of urburdizzo and knife
    • Use of hot iron bar
      3 x ½ = 1 ½ mk
      3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks
  24. (a) – Liver fluke 1 x 1= 1mk
    (b) – Cattle/sheep 1 x 1= 1mk
    (c) – Water snail 1 x 1= 1mk (d) – Control the intermediate host
    • Draining swampy areas
    • Routine drenching of the animal
    • Not grazing animals in the mershy areas
      2 x 1 = 2mks
  25. (a) – Propeller shaft
    • Power take off
    • Hydraulic system
    • Draw bar 4 x 1 = 4mks
      (b) – Carbon deposits on the spark plug electrodes should be removed
    • Spark plugs whose electrodes are worn out should be replaced.
    • Contact breaker points should be cleaned
    • Condenser should be replaced regulary.
    • The breaker points should be adjusted so that they lie between 0.3mm and 0.5mm
    • Ignition system should be always kept dry
    • Ignition wire with poor insulation should be replaced
      6 x 1 = 6mk
      (c) – Use properly trained animals
    • Ensure proper feeding of oxen
    • Ensure proper health of oxen
    • Ensure proper handling of oxen
    • Use skilled operator
    • Adjust the draw bar properly
    • Harness oxen properly
    • Replace worn out parts of the plough
  26. (a) -Cross breeding 1 x 1= 1mk
    (b) – Spreading breeding diseases
    • Heavy big bulls can injure small females
    • Can lead to in-breeding
    • spreading of external parasites
      3 x 1 = 3mks
      (c) (i) – Its expensive
    • Requires highly skilled labour
    • Requires special equipment for fertilizing and storage
    • If uterus of the animal to receive the embryo is not ready, implantation will not occur
      4 x 1 = 4mks (ii) – Poor health
  • Boar is too old
  • Boar is infertile/lacks libido
  • Develops bad temperament
  • Avoid inbreeding
  • Boar is too fat and lazy 2 x 1 = 2mks (d) – Selection of best animals in the herd
    • Breed using A1 or high quality bulls
    • Serve at the correct age and weight
    • Feed animals with balanced diet
    • provide animals with adequate or enough food
  • Give plenty of clean water (adlib)
    • Provide proper housing and protect from bad weather elements
    • control internal parasite by deworming or drenching
    • control external parasite by dipping or spraying
    • Give plenty of mineral licks or salts
      10 x 1 = 10mks
  1. (a) – Roof catchment
    • Rock catchment
    • Wells and dams
    • Ponds
    • Retention ditches/level terraces
      4 x 1 = 4mks
      (b) – Triangular/V-shaped – V – Buds measuring 25 cm are built with soil from the excavated
      planting holes to direct run-off water towards the basin area around the base of
      each plant.
    • Semi-circular bunds-formed around the growing plant to help hold water around the plant
      when it is still young.
    • Trapezoidal bunds – Trapezoidal shaped and work like the V-shaped bunds but enclosed
      a large area where the crops are grown
    • Contour bunds/furrows – These are furrows made along the contours or ridges made from
      contour bunds where crops are planted.
  • Planting bits/holes – Extra large planting holes are made and filled with dry planting Materials before filling with soil, the seedlings are planted in the middle of the hole. (c) – Encourage development of natural vegetation – around the water conservation area
    • support tree growing in a degraded land such as overgrazed/croweded areas
    • Make agro-forestry possible where water is not available for irrigation by conserving the
      little rain received.
  • Help the soil to hold water for a long period near the roots of the growing plant.
  • Reduces continuous watering of the plants since the water collects in a basin around the plant base.