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Biology questions all questions KCSE

BIOLOGY TOPICS HIGHLIGHTED Classification I & II………………………………………………………………………..4 The cell – structure & functions of organelles…………………………………….………5 Cell physiology – osmosis, diffusion and active transport………………………………..9 Nutrition in (a) plants (b) animals………………………………………………………13 Transport in (a) plants (b) animals………………………………………………………24 Gaseous exchange in (a) plants (b animals………………………………………………30 Respiration………………………………………………………………………………..34 Excretion and homeostasis………………………………………………………………37 Ecology…………………………………………………………………………………..45 Reproduction in (a) plants (b) animals…………………………………………………53 Growth and …

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ATOMS,ELEMENTS AND CHEMICAL BONDING

Elements are made of tiny particles of matter called atoms. Each atom is made of subatomic particles called protons, neutrons and electrons. Their size is so tiny that we can’t really compare their masses in conventional units such as kilograms or grams, so a unit called the relative atomic mass is used. One relative atomic mass unit is equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom. …

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Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry Topic 1: The particulate nature of matter

State the distinguishing properties of solids, liquids and gases Solids Strong forces of attraction between particles, particles are packed very closely together in a fixed and regular pattern. Atoms vibrate in position but can’t change position or move. Solids have a fixed volume, shape and high density. Liquids Weaker attractive forces in liquids than in …

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IGCSE BIOLOGY TOPIC 21 HUMAN INFLUENCE ON ECOSYSTEM

Food supplyImprovements in farming:With the advancement of technology, new methods of farming have been introduced in orderto maximise yield:● Use of machinery – agricultural machinery can be used in the place of people. This isquicker and more efficient, thus larger amounts of land can be farmed at once.● Chemical fertilisers – fertilisers increase the amount …

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IGCSE BIOLOGY TOPIC 20 BIOTECHNOLOGY

Genetic engineering is the process of artificially altering genes in a cell to change the way itworks. This could be to make the cell perform a desired function, such as making a specificprotein, or to make the cell resistant to different factors. For example, some strawberries havebeen genetically modified to become resistant to frost by …

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Key words:● Producer – an organism which converts light energy to chemical energy in order toproduce its own nutrients.● Consumer – an organism which gets energy from feeding on other animals or plants.● Food chain – a diagram which shows the order of energy transfer through feeding in anecosystem.● Food web – a diagram showing …

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IGCSE BIOLOGY TOPIC 18 VARIATION

Variation SUMMARY NOTES Variation refers to the differences between each organism in a species. Variation is beneficial to aspecies as it allows natural selection to occur and reduces the risk of extinction from disease. There aretwo types of variation: genetic variation and phenotypic variation.● Genetic variation – each organism in a species has a different …

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IGCSE BIOLOGY TOPIC 17 INHERITANCE

Summary notes Key words:● Inheritance – the transmission of genetic information from parents to offspring.● Chromosome – a thread-like structure of DNA that carries genetic information in theform of genes.● Gene – a length of DNA that codes for a particular protein.● Allele – one of a number of different versions of a gene.● Genotype …

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IGCSE BIOLOGY TOPIC 16 REPRODUCTION

summary notes Pollen grains land on a plant stigma. If the pollen is of the same species, a pollen tube begins to grow. The pollen moves down the pollen tube to the ovule. Fertilisation occurs when the nucleus from the pollen cell fuses with a nucleus in anovule. This produces a zygote. The zygote develops …

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IGCSE BIOLOGY TOPIC 15 Drugs

Summary notes A drug is a substance that, when taken into the body, has an effect on the chemical reactionsthat take place. There are a variety of different drugs which treat different diseases.Antibiotics:Antibiotic drugs are used to treat bacterial infections. Some antibiotics kill bacteria bydestroying their cell wall, leading to the cell bursting, whilst others …

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